IT. Expert System.

Java Standard Edition (SE)

MethodType


compact1, compact2, compact3
java.lang.invoke

Class MethodType

  • All Implemented Interfaces:
    Serializable


    public final class MethodType
    extends Object
    implements Serializable
    A method type represents the arguments and return type accepted and returned by a method handle, or the arguments and return type passed and expected by a method handle caller. Method types must be properly matched between a method handle and all its callers, and the JVM's operations enforce this matching at, specifically during calls to MethodHandle.invokeExact and MethodHandle.invoke, and during execution of invokedynamic instructions.

    The structure is a return type accompanied by any number of parameter types. The types (primitive, void, and reference) are represented by Class objects. (For ease of exposition, we treat void as if it were a type. In fact, it denotes the absence of a return type.)

    All instances of MethodType are immutable. Two instances are completely interchangeable if they compare equal. Equality depends on pairwise correspondence of the return and parameter types and on nothing else.

    This type can be created only by factory methods. All factory methods may cache values, though caching is not guaranteed. Some factory methods are static, while others are virtual methods which modify precursor method types, e.g., by changing a selected parameter.

    Factory methods which operate on groups of parameter types are systematically presented in two versions, so that both Java arrays and Java lists can be used to work with groups of parameter types. The query methods parameterArray and parameterList also provide a choice between arrays and lists.

    MethodType objects are sometimes derived from bytecode instructions such as invokedynamic, specifically from the type descriptor strings associated with the instructions in a class file's constant pool.

    Like classes and strings, method types can also be represented directly in a class file's constant pool as constants. A method type may be loaded by an ldc instruction which refers to a suitable CONSTANT_MethodType constant pool entry. The entry refers to a CONSTANT_Utf8 spelling for the descriptor string. (For full details on method type constants, see sections 4.4.8 and 5.4.3.5 of the Java Virtual Machine Specification.)

    When the JVM materializes a MethodType from a descriptor string, all classes named in the descriptor must be accessible, and will be loaded. (But the classes need not be initialized, as is the case with a CONSTANT_Class.) This loading may occur at any time before the MethodType object is first derived.

    See Also:
    Serialized Form
    • Method Detail

      • methodType

        public static MethodType methodType(Class<?> rtype,
                                            Class<?>[] ptypes)
        Finds or creates an instance of the given method type.
        Parameters:
        rtype - the return type
        ptypes - the parameter types
        Returns:
        a method type with the given components
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if rtype or ptypes or any element of ptypes is null
        IllegalArgumentException - if any element of ptypes is void.class
      • methodType

        public static MethodType methodType(Class<?> rtype,
                                            List<Class<?>> ptypes)
        Finds or creates a method type with the given components. Convenience method for methodType.
        Parameters:
        rtype - the return type
        ptypes - the parameter types
        Returns:
        a method type with the given components
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if rtype or ptypes or any element of ptypes is null
        IllegalArgumentException - if any element of ptypes is void.class
      • methodType

        public static MethodType methodType(Class<?> rtype,
                                            Class<?> ptype0,
                                            Class<?>... ptypes)
        Finds or creates a method type with the given components. Convenience method for methodType. The leading parameter type is prepended to the remaining array.
        Parameters:
        rtype - the return type
        ptype0 - the first parameter type
        ptypes - the remaining parameter types
        Returns:
        a method type with the given components
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if rtype or ptype0 or ptypes or any element of ptypes is null
        IllegalArgumentException - if ptype0 or ptypes or any element of ptypes is void.class
      • methodType

        public static MethodType methodType(Class<?> rtype)
        Finds or creates a method type with the given components. Convenience method for methodType. The resulting method has no parameter types.
        Parameters:
        rtype - the return type
        Returns:
        a method type with the given return value
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if rtype is null
      • methodType

        public static MethodType methodType(Class<?> rtype,
                                            Class<?> ptype0)
        Finds or creates a method type with the given components. Convenience method for methodType. The resulting method has the single given parameter type.
        Parameters:
        rtype - the return type
        ptype0 - the parameter type
        Returns:
        a method type with the given return value and parameter type
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if rtype or ptype0 is null
        IllegalArgumentException - if ptype0 is void.class
      • methodType

        public static MethodType methodType(Class<?> rtype,
                                            MethodType ptypes)
        Finds or creates a method type with the given components. Convenience method for methodType. The resulting method has the same parameter types as ptypes, and the specified return type.
        Parameters:
        rtype - the return type
        ptypes - the method type which supplies the parameter types
        Returns:
        a method type with the given components
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if rtype or ptypes is null
      • genericMethodType

        public static MethodType genericMethodType(int objectArgCount,
                                                   boolean finalArray)
        Finds or creates a method type whose components are Object with an optional trailing Object[] array. Convenience method for methodType. All parameters and the return type will be Object, except the final array parameter if any, which will be Object[].
        Parameters:
        objectArgCount - number of parameters (excluding the final array parameter if any)
        finalArray - whether there will be a trailing array parameter, of type Object[]
        Returns:
        a generally applicable method type, for all calls of the given fixed argument count and a collected array of further arguments
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if objectArgCount is negative or greater than 255 (or 254, if finalArray is true)
        See Also:
        genericMethodType(int)
      • genericMethodType

        public static MethodType genericMethodType(int objectArgCount)
        Finds or creates a method type whose components are all Object. Convenience method for methodType. All parameters and the return type will be Object.
        Parameters:
        objectArgCount - number of parameters
        Returns:
        a generally applicable method type, for all calls of the given argument count
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if objectArgCount is negative or greater than 255
        See Also:
        genericMethodType(int, boolean)
      • changeParameterType

        public MethodType changeParameterType(int num,
                                              Class<?> nptype)
        Finds or creates a method type with a single different parameter type. Convenience method for methodType.
        Parameters:
        num - the index (zero-based) of the parameter type to change
        nptype - a new parameter type to replace the old one with
        Returns:
        the same type, except with the selected parameter changed
        Throws:
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if num is not a valid index into parameterArray()
        IllegalArgumentException - if nptype is void.class
        NullPointerException - if nptype is null
      • insertParameterTypes

        public MethodType insertParameterTypes(int num,
                                               Class<?>... ptypesToInsert)
        Finds or creates a method type with additional parameter types. Convenience method for methodType.
        Parameters:
        num - the position (zero-based) of the inserted parameter type(s)
        ptypesToInsert - zero or more new parameter types to insert into the parameter list
        Returns:
        the same type, except with the selected parameter(s) inserted
        Throws:
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if num is negative or greater than parameterCount()
        IllegalArgumentException - if any element of ptypesToInsert is void.class or if the resulting method type would have more than 255 parameter slots
        NullPointerException - if ptypesToInsert or any of its elements is null
      • appendParameterTypes

        public MethodType appendParameterTypes(Class<?>... ptypesToInsert)
        Finds or creates a method type with additional parameter types. Convenience method for methodType.
        Parameters:
        ptypesToInsert - zero or more new parameter types to insert after the end of the parameter list
        Returns:
        the same type, except with the selected parameter(s) appended
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if any element of ptypesToInsert is void.class or if the resulting method type would have more than 255 parameter slots
        NullPointerException - if ptypesToInsert or any of its elements is null
      • insertParameterTypes

        public MethodType insertParameterTypes(int num,
                                               List<Class<?>> ptypesToInsert)
        Finds or creates a method type with additional parameter types. Convenience method for methodType.
        Parameters:
        num - the position (zero-based) of the inserted parameter type(s)
        ptypesToInsert - zero or more new parameter types to insert into the parameter list
        Returns:
        the same type, except with the selected parameter(s) inserted
        Throws:
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if num is negative or greater than parameterCount()
        IllegalArgumentException - if any element of ptypesToInsert is void.class or if the resulting method type would have more than 255 parameter slots
        NullPointerException - if ptypesToInsert or any of its elements is null
      • appendParameterTypes

        public MethodType appendParameterTypes(List<Class<?>> ptypesToInsert)
        Finds or creates a method type with additional parameter types. Convenience method for methodType.
        Parameters:
        ptypesToInsert - zero or more new parameter types to insert after the end of the parameter list
        Returns:
        the same type, except with the selected parameter(s) appended
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if any element of ptypesToInsert is void.class or if the resulting method type would have more than 255 parameter slots
        NullPointerException - if ptypesToInsert or any of its elements is null
      • dropParameterTypes

        public MethodType dropParameterTypes(int start,
                                             int end)
        Finds or creates a method type with some parameter types omitted. Convenience method for methodType.
        Parameters:
        start - the index (zero-based) of the first parameter type to remove
        end - the index (greater than start) of the first parameter type after not to remove
        Returns:
        the same type, except with the selected parameter(s) removed
        Throws:
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if start is negative or greater than parameterCount() or if end is negative or greater than parameterCount() or if start is greater than end
      • changeReturnType

        public MethodType changeReturnType(Class<?> nrtype)
        Finds or creates a method type with a different return type. Convenience method for methodType.
        Parameters:
        nrtype - a return parameter type to replace the old one with
        Returns:
        the same type, except with the return type change
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if nrtype is null
      • hasPrimitives

        public boolean hasPrimitives()
        Reports if this type contains a primitive argument or return value. The return type void counts as a primitive.
        Returns:
        true if any of the types are primitives
      • hasWrappers

        public boolean hasWrappers()
        Reports if this type contains a wrapper argument or return value. Wrappers are types which box primitive values, such as Integer. The reference type java.lang.Void counts as a wrapper, if it occurs as a return type.
        Returns:
        true if any of the types are wrappers
      • erase

        public MethodType erase()
        Erases all reference types to Object. Convenience method for methodType. All primitive types (including void) will remain unchanged.
        Returns:
        a version of the original type with all reference types replaced
      • generic

        public MethodType generic()
        Converts all types, both reference and primitive, to Object. Convenience method for genericMethodType. The expression type.wrap().erase() produces the same value as type.generic().
        Returns:
        a version of the original type with all types replaced
      • wrap

        public MethodType wrap()
        Converts all primitive types to their corresponding wrapper types. Convenience method for methodType. All reference types (including wrapper types) will remain unchanged. A void return type is changed to the type java.lang.Void. The expression type.wrap().erase() produces the same value as type.generic().
        Returns:
        a version of the original type with all primitive types replaced
      • unwrap

        public MethodType unwrap()
        Converts all wrapper types to their corresponding primitive types. Convenience method for methodType. All primitive types (including void) will remain unchanged. A return type of java.lang.Void is changed to void.
        Returns:
        a version of the original type with all wrapper types replaced
      • parameterType

        public Class<?> parameterType(int num)
        Returns the parameter type at the specified index, within this method type.
        Parameters:
        num - the index (zero-based) of the desired parameter type
        Returns:
        the selected parameter type
        Throws:
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if num is not a valid index into parameterArray()
      • parameterCount

        public int parameterCount()
        Returns the number of parameter types in this method type.
        Returns:
        the number of parameter types
      • returnType

        public Class<?> returnType()
        Returns the return type of this method type.
        Returns:
        the return type
      • parameterList

        public List<Class<?>> parameterList()
        Presents the parameter types as a list (a convenience method). The list will be immutable.
        Returns:
        the parameter types (as an immutable list)
      • parameterArray

        public Class<?>[] parameterArray()
        Presents the parameter types as an array (a convenience method). Changes to the array will not result in changes to the type.
        Returns:
        the parameter types (as a fresh copy if necessary)
      • equals

        public boolean equals(Object x)
        Compares the specified object with this type for equality. That is, it returns true if and only if the specified object is also a method type with exactly the same parameters and return type.
        Overrides:
        equals in class Object
        Parameters:
        x - object to compare
        Returns:
        true if this object is the same as the obj argument; false otherwise.
        See Also:
        Object.equals(Object)
      • hashCode

        public int hashCode()
        Returns the hash code value for this method type. It is defined to be the same as the hashcode of a List whose elements are the return type followed by the parameter types.
        Overrides:
        hashCode in class Object
        Returns:
        the hash code value for this method type
        See Also:
        Object.hashCode(), equals(Object), List.hashCode()
      • toString

        public String toString()
        Returns a string representation of the method type, of the form "(PT0,PT1...)RT". The string representation of a method type is a parenthesis enclosed, comma separated list of type names, followed immediately by the return type.

        Each type is represented by its simple name.

        Overrides:
        toString in class Object
        Returns:
        a string representation of the object.
      • fromMethodDescriptorString

        public static MethodType fromMethodDescriptorString(String descriptor,
                                                            ClassLoader loader)
                                                     throws IllegalArgumentException,
                                                            TypeNotPresentException
        Finds or creates an instance of a method type, given the spelling of its bytecode descriptor. Convenience method for methodType. Any class or interface name embedded in the descriptor string will be resolved by calling ClassLoader.loadClass(java.lang.String) on the given loader (or if it is null, on the system class loader).

        Note that it is possible to encounter method types which cannot be constructed by this method, because their component types are not all reachable from a common class loader.

        This method is included for the benefit of applications that must generate bytecodes that process method handles and invokedynamic.

        Parameters:
        descriptor - a bytecode-level type descriptor string "(T...)T"
        loader - the class loader in which to look up the types
        Returns:
        a method type matching the bytecode-level type descriptor
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if the string is null
        IllegalArgumentException - if the string is not well-formed
        TypeNotPresentException - if a named type cannot be found
      • toMethodDescriptorString

        public String toMethodDescriptorString()
        Produces a bytecode descriptor representation of the method type.

        Note that this is not a strict inverse of fromMethodDescriptorString. Two distinct classes which share a common name but have different class loaders will appear identical when viewed within descriptor strings.

        This method is included for the benefit of applications that must generate bytecodes that process method handles and invokedynamic. fromMethodDescriptorString, because the latter requires a suitable class loader argument.

        Returns:
        the bytecode type descriptor representation


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