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Java Standard Edition (SE)

AsynchronousFileChannel


compact1, compact2, compact3
java.nio.channels

Class AsynchronousFileChannel

  • All Implemented Interfaces:
    Closeable, AutoCloseable, AsynchronousChannel, Channel


    public abstract class AsynchronousFileChannel
    extends Object
    implements AsynchronousChannel
    An asynchronous channel for reading, writing, and manipulating a file.

    An asynchronous file channel is created when a file is opened by invoking one of the open methods defined by this class. The file contains a variable-length sequence of bytes that can be read and written and whose current size can be queried. The size of the file increases when bytes are written beyond its current size; the size of the file decreases when it is truncated.

    An asynchronous file channel does not have a current position within the file. Instead, the file position is specified to each read and write method that initiates asynchronous operations. A CompletionHandler is specified as a parameter and is invoked to consume the result of the I/O operation. This class also defines read and write methods that initiate asynchronous operations, returning a Future to represent the pending result of the operation. The Future may be used to check if the operation has completed, wait for its completion, and retrieve the result.

    In addition to read and write operations, this class defines the following operations:

    • Updates made to a file may be forced out to the underlying storage device, ensuring that data are not lost in the event of a system crash.

    • A region of a file may be locked against access by other programs.

    An AsynchronousFileChannel is associated with a thread pool to which tasks are submitted to handle I/O events and dispatch to completion handlers that consume the results of I/O operations on the channel. The completion handler for an I/O operation initiated on a channel is guaranteed to be invoked by one of the threads in the thread pool (This ensures that the completion handler is run by a thread with the expected identity). Where an I/O operation completes immediately, and the initiating thread is itself a thread in the thread pool, then the completion handler may be invoked directly by the initiating thread. When an AsynchronousFileChannel is created without specifying a thread pool then the channel is associated with a system-dependent default thread pool that may be shared with other channels. The default thread pool is configured by the system properties defined by the AsynchronousChannelGroup class.

    Channels of this type are safe for use by multiple concurrent threads. The close method may be invoked at any time, as specified by the Channel interface. This causes all outstanding asynchronous operations on the channel to complete with the exception AsynchronousCloseException. Multiple read and write operations may be outstanding at the same time. When multiple read and write operations are outstanding then the ordering of the I/O operations, and the order that the completion handlers are invoked, is not specified; they are not, in particular, guaranteed to execute in the order that the operations were initiated. The ByteBuffers used when reading or writing are not safe for use by multiple concurrent I/O operations. Furthermore, after an I/O operation is initiated then care should be taken to ensure that the buffer is not accessed until after the operation has completed.

    As with FileChannel, the view of a file provided by an instance of this class is guaranteed to be consistent with other views of the same file provided by other instances in the same program. The view provided by an instance of this class may or may not, however, be consistent with the views seen by other concurrently-running programs due to caching performed by the underlying operating system and delays induced by network-filesystem protocols. This is true regardless of the language in which these other programs are written, and whether they are running on the same machine or on some other machine. The exact nature of any such inconsistencies are system-dependent and are therefore unspecified.

    Since:
    1.7
    • Constructor Detail

      • AsynchronousFileChannel

        protected AsynchronousFileChannel()
        Initializes a new instance of this class.
    • Method Detail

      • open

        public static AsynchronousFileChannel open(Path file,
                                                   Set<? extends OpenOption> options,
                                                   ExecutorService executor,
                                                   FileAttribute<?>... attrs)
                                            throws IOException
        Opens or creates a file for reading and/or writing, returning an asynchronous file channel to access the file.

        The options parameter determines how the file is opened. The READ and WRITE options determines if the file should be opened for reading and/or writing. If neither option is contained in the array then an existing file is opened for reading.

        In addition to READ and WRITE, the following options may be present:

        Option Description
        TRUNCATE_EXISTING When opening an existing file, the file is first truncated to a size of 0 bytes. This option is ignored when the file is opened only for reading.
        CREATE_NEW If this option is present then a new file is created, failing if the file already exists. When creating a file the check for the existence of the file and the creation of the file if it does not exist is atomic with respect to other file system operations. This option is ignored when the file is opened only for reading.
        CREATE If this option is present then an existing file is opened if it exists, otherwise a new file is created. When creating a file the check for the existence of the file and the creation of the file if it does not exist is atomic with respect to other file system operations. This option is ignored if the CREATE_NEW option is also present or the file is opened only for reading.
        DELETE_ON_CLOSE When this option is present then the implementation makes a best effort attempt to delete the file when closed by the the close method. If the close method is not invoked then a best effort attempt is made to delete the file when the Java virtual machine terminates.
        SPARSE When creating a new file this option is a hint that the new file will be sparse. This option is ignored when not creating a new file.
        SYNC Requires that every update to the file's content or metadata be written synchronously to the underlying storage device. (see Synchronized I/O file integrity).
        DSYNC Requires that every update to the file's content be written synchronously to the underlying storage device. (see Synchronized I/O file integrity).

        An implementation may also support additional options.

        The executor parameter is the ExecutorService to which tasks are submitted to handle I/O events and dispatch completion results for operations initiated on resulting channel. The nature of these tasks is highly implementation specific and so care should be taken when configuring the Executor. Minimally it should support an unbounded work queue and should not run tasks on the caller thread of the execute method. Shutting down the executor service while the channel is open results in unspecified behavior.

        The attrs parameter is an optional array of file file-attributes to set atomically when creating the file.

        The new channel is created by invoking the newFileChannel method on the provider that created the Path.

        Parameters:
        file - The path of the file to open or create
        options - Options specifying how the file is opened
        executor - The thread pool or null to associate the channel with the default thread pool
        attrs - An optional list of file attributes to set atomically when creating the file
        Returns:
        A new asynchronous file channel
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - If the set contains an invalid combination of options
        UnsupportedOperationException - If the file is associated with a provider that does not support creating asynchronous file channels, or an unsupported open option is specified, or the array contains an attribute that cannot be set atomically when creating the file
        IOException - If an I/O error occurs
        SecurityException - If a security manager is installed and it denies an unspecified permission required by the implementation. In the case of the default provider, the SecurityManager.checkRead(String) method is invoked to check read access if the file is opened for reading. The SecurityManager.checkWrite(String) method is invoked to check write access if the file is opened for writing
      • open

        public static AsynchronousFileChannel open(Path file,
                                                   OpenOption... options)
                                            throws IOException
        Opens or creates a file for reading and/or writing, returning an asynchronous file channel to access the file.

        An invocation of this method behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation

             ch.open(file, opts, null, new FileAttribute<?>[0]);
         
        where opts is a Set containing the options specified to this method.

        The resulting channel is associated with default thread pool to which tasks are submitted to handle I/O events and dispatch to completion handlers that consume the result of asynchronous operations performed on the resulting channel.

        Parameters:
        file - The path of the file to open or create
        options - Options specifying how the file is opened
        Returns:
        A new asynchronous file channel
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - If the set contains an invalid combination of options
        UnsupportedOperationException - If the file is associated with a provider that does not support creating file channels, or an unsupported open option is specified
        IOException - If an I/O error occurs
        SecurityException - If a security manager is installed and it denies an unspecified permission required by the implementation. In the case of the default provider, the SecurityManager.checkRead(String) method is invoked to check read access if the file is opened for reading. The SecurityManager.checkWrite(String) method is invoked to check write access if the file is opened for writing
      • size

        public abstract long size()
                           throws IOException
        Returns the current size of this channel's file.
        Returns:
        The current size of this channel's file, measured in bytes
        Throws:
        ClosedChannelException - If this channel is closed
        IOException - If some other I/O error occurs
      • truncate

        public abstract AsynchronousFileChannel truncate(long size)
                                                  throws IOException
        Truncates this channel's file to the given size.

        If the given size is less than the file's current size then the file is truncated, discarding any bytes beyond the new end of the file. If the given size is greater than or equal to the file's current size then the file is not modified.

        Parameters:
        size - The new size, a non-negative byte count
        Returns:
        This file channel
        Throws:
        NonWritableChannelException - If this channel was not opened for writing
        ClosedChannelException - If this channel is closed
        IllegalArgumentException - If the new size is negative
        IOException - If some other I/O error occurs
      • force

        public abstract void force(boolean metaData)
                            throws IOException
        Forces any updates to this channel's file to be written to the storage device that contains it.

        If this channel's file resides on a local storage device then when this method returns it is guaranteed that all changes made to the file since this channel was created, or since this method was last invoked, will have been written to that device. This is useful for ensuring that critical information is not lost in the event of a system crash.

        If the file does not reside on a local device then no such guarantee is made.

        The metaData parameter can be used to limit the number of I/O operations that this method is required to perform. Passing false for this parameter indicates that only updates to the file's content need be written to storage; passing true indicates that updates to both the file's content and metadata must be written, which generally requires at least one more I/O operation. Whether this parameter actually has any effect is dependent upon the underlying operating system and is therefore unspecified.

        Invoking this method may cause an I/O operation to occur even if the channel was only opened for reading. Some operating systems, for example, maintain a last-access time as part of a file's metadata, and this time is updated whenever the file is read. Whether or not this is actually done is system-dependent and is therefore unspecified.

        This method is only guaranteed to force changes that were made to this channel's file via the methods defined in this class.

        Parameters:
        metaData - If true then this method is required to force changes to both the file's content and metadata to be written to storage; otherwise, it need only force content changes to be written
        Throws:
        ClosedChannelException - If this channel is closed
        IOException - If some other I/O error occurs
      • lock

        public abstract <A> void lock(long position,
                                      long size,
                                      boolean shared,
                                      A attachment,
                                      CompletionHandler<FileLock,? super A> handler)
        Acquires a lock on the given region of this channel's file.

        This method initiates an operation to acquire a lock on the given region of this channel's file. The handler parameter is a completion handler that is invoked when the lock is acquired (or the operation fails). The result passed to the completion handler is the resulting FileLock.

        The region specified by the position and size parameters need not be contained within, or even overlap, the actual underlying file. Lock regions are fixed in size; if a locked region initially contains the end of the file and the file grows beyond the region then the new portion of the file will not be covered by the lock. If a file is expected to grow in size and a lock on the entire file is required then a region starting at zero, and no smaller than the expected maximum size of the file, should be locked. The two-argument lock(Object,CompletionHandler) method simply locks a region of size Long.MAX_VALUE. If a lock that overlaps the requested region is already held by this Java virtual machine, or this method has been invoked to lock an overlapping region and that operation has not completed, then this method throws OverlappingFileLockException.

        Some operating systems do not support a mechanism to acquire a file lock in an asynchronous manner. Consequently an implementation may acquire the file lock in a background thread or from a task executed by a thread in the associated thread pool. If there are many lock operations outstanding then it may consume threads in the Java virtual machine for indefinite periods.

        Some operating systems do not support shared locks, in which case a request for a shared lock is automatically converted into a request for an exclusive lock. Whether the newly-acquired lock is shared or exclusive may be tested by invoking the resulting lock object's isShared method.

        File locks are held on behalf of the entire Java virtual machine. They are not suitable for controlling access to a file by multiple threads within the same virtual machine.

        Type Parameters:
        A - The type of the attachment
        Parameters:
        position - The position at which the locked region is to start; must be non-negative
        size - The size of the locked region; must be non-negative, and the sum position + size must be non-negative
        shared - true to request a shared lock, in which case this channel must be open for reading (and possibly writing); false to request an exclusive lock, in which case this channel must be open for writing (and possibly reading)
        attachment - The object to attach to the I/O operation; can be null
        handler - The handler for consuming the result
        Throws:
        OverlappingFileLockException - If a lock that overlaps the requested region is already held by this Java virtual machine, or there is already a pending attempt to lock an overlapping region
        IllegalArgumentException - If the preconditions on the parameters do not hold
        NonReadableChannelException - If shared is true but this channel was not opened for reading
        NonWritableChannelException - If shared is false but this channel was not opened for writing
      • lock

        public final <A> void lock(A attachment,
                                   CompletionHandler<FileLock,? super A> handler)
        Acquires an exclusive lock on this channel's file.

        This method initiates an operation to acquire a lock on the given region of this channel's file. The handler parameter is a completion handler that is invoked when the lock is acquired (or the operation fails). The result passed to the completion handler is the resulting FileLock.

        An invocation of this method of the form ch.lock(att,handler) behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation

             ch.lock(0L, Long.MAX_VALUE, false, att, handler)
         
        Type Parameters:
        A - The type of the attachment
        Parameters:
        attachment - The object to attach to the I/O operation; can be null
        handler - The handler for consuming the result
        Throws:
        OverlappingFileLockException - If a lock is already held by this Java virtual machine, or there is already a pending attempt to lock a region
        NonWritableChannelException - If this channel was not opened for writing
      • lock

        public abstract Future<FileLock> lock(long position,
                                              long size,
                                              boolean shared)
        Acquires a lock on the given region of this channel's file.

        This method initiates an operation to acquire a lock on the given region of this channel's file. The method behaves in exactly the same manner as the lock(long, long, boolean, Object, CompletionHandler) method except that instead of specifying a completion handler, this method returns a Future representing the pending result. The Future's get method returns the FileLock on successful completion.

        Parameters:
        position - The position at which the locked region is to start; must be non-negative
        size - The size of the locked region; must be non-negative, and the sum position + size must be non-negative
        shared - true to request a shared lock, in which case this channel must be open for reading (and possibly writing); false to request an exclusive lock, in which case this channel must be open for writing (and possibly reading)
        Returns:
        a Future object representing the pending result
        Throws:
        OverlappingFileLockException - If a lock is already held by this Java virtual machine, or there is already a pending attempt to lock a region
        IllegalArgumentException - If the preconditions on the parameters do not hold
        NonReadableChannelException - If shared is true but this channel was not opened for reading
        NonWritableChannelException - If shared is false but this channel was not opened for writing
      • lock

        public final Future<FileLock> lock()
        Acquires an exclusive lock on this channel's file.

        This method initiates an operation to acquire an exclusive lock on this channel's file. The method returns a Future representing the pending result of the operation. The Future's get method returns the FileLock on successful completion.

        An invocation of this method behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation

             ch.lock(0L, Long.MAX_VALUE, false)
         
        Returns:
        a Future object representing the pending result
        Throws:
        OverlappingFileLockException - If a lock is already held by this Java virtual machine, or there is already a pending attempt to lock a region
        NonWritableChannelException - If this channel was not opened for writing
      • tryLock

        public abstract FileLock tryLock(long position,
                                         long size,
                                         boolean shared)
                                  throws IOException
        Attempts to acquire a lock on the given region of this channel's file.

        This method does not block. An invocation always returns immediately, either having acquired a lock on the requested region or having failed to do so. If it fails to acquire a lock because an overlapping lock is held by another program then it returns null. If it fails to acquire a lock for any other reason then an appropriate exception is thrown.

        Parameters:
        position - The position at which the locked region is to start; must be non-negative
        size - The size of the locked region; must be non-negative, and the sum position + size must be non-negative
        shared - true to request a shared lock, false to request an exclusive lock
        Returns:
        A lock object representing the newly-acquired lock, or null if the lock could not be acquired because another program holds an overlapping lock
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - If the preconditions on the parameters do not hold
        ClosedChannelException - If this channel is closed
        OverlappingFileLockException - If a lock that overlaps the requested region is already held by this Java virtual machine, or if another thread is already blocked in this method and is attempting to lock an overlapping region of the same file
        NonReadableChannelException - If shared is true but this channel was not opened for reading
        NonWritableChannelException - If shared is false but this channel was not opened for writing
        IOException - If some other I/O error occurs
        See Also:
        lock(Object,CompletionHandler), lock(long,long,boolean,Object,CompletionHandler), tryLock()
      • read

        public abstract <A> void read(ByteBuffer dst,
                                      long position,
                                      A attachment,
                                      CompletionHandler<Integer,? super A> handler)
        Reads a sequence of bytes from this channel into the given buffer, starting at the given file position.

        This method initiates the reading of a sequence of bytes from this channel into the given buffer, starting at the given file position. The result of the read is the number of bytes read or -1 if the given position is greater than or equal to the file's size at the time that the read is attempted.

        This method works in the same manner as the AsynchronousByteChannel.read(ByteBuffer,Object,CompletionHandler) method, except that bytes are read starting at the given file position. If the given file position is greater than the file's size at the time that the read is attempted then no bytes are read.

        Type Parameters:
        A - The type of the attachment
        Parameters:
        dst - The buffer into which bytes are to be transferred
        position - The file position at which the transfer is to begin; must be non-negative
        attachment - The object to attach to the I/O operation; can be null
        handler - The handler for consuming the result
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - If the position is negative or the buffer is read-only
        NonReadableChannelException - If this channel was not opened for reading
      • read

        public abstract Future<Integer> read(ByteBuffer dst,
                                             long position)
        Reads a sequence of bytes from this channel into the given buffer, starting at the given file position.

        This method initiates the reading of a sequence of bytes from this channel into the given buffer, starting at the given file position. This method returns a Future representing the pending result of the operation. The Future's get method returns the number of bytes read or -1 if the given position is greater than or equal to the file's size at the time that the read is attempted.

        This method works in the same manner as the AsynchronousByteChannel.read(ByteBuffer) method, except that bytes are read starting at the given file position. If the given file position is greater than the file's size at the time that the read is attempted then no bytes are read.

        Parameters:
        dst - The buffer into which bytes are to be transferred
        position - The file position at which the transfer is to begin; must be non-negative
        Returns:
        A Future object representing the pending result
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - If the position is negative or the buffer is read-only
        NonReadableChannelException - If this channel was not opened for reading
      • write

        public abstract <A> void write(ByteBuffer src,
                                       long position,
                                       A attachment,
                                       CompletionHandler<Integer,? super A> handler)
        Writes a sequence of bytes to this channel from the given buffer, starting at the given file position.

        This method works in the same manner as the AsynchronousByteChannel.write(ByteBuffer,Object,CompletionHandler) method, except that bytes are written starting at the given file position. If the given position is greater than the file's size, at the time that the write is attempted, then the file will be grown to accommodate the new bytes; the values of any bytes between the previous end-of-file and the newly-written bytes are unspecified.

        Type Parameters:
        A - The type of the attachment
        Parameters:
        src - The buffer from which bytes are to be transferred
        position - The file position at which the transfer is to begin; must be non-negative
        attachment - The object to attach to the I/O operation; can be null
        handler - The handler for consuming the result
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - If the position is negative
        NonWritableChannelException - If this channel was not opened for writing
      • write

        public abstract Future<Integer> write(ByteBuffer src,
                                              long position)
        Writes a sequence of bytes to this channel from the given buffer, starting at the given file position.

        This method initiates the writing of a sequence of bytes to this channel from the given buffer, starting at the given file position. The method returns a Future representing the pending result of the write operation. The Future's get method returns the number of bytes written.

        This method works in the same manner as the AsynchronousByteChannel.write(ByteBuffer) method, except that bytes are written starting at the given file position. If the given position is greater than the file's size, at the time that the write is attempted, then the file will be grown to accommodate the new bytes; the values of any bytes between the previous end-of-file and the newly-written bytes are unspecified.

        Parameters:
        src - The buffer from which bytes are to be transferred
        position - The file position at which the transfer is to begin; must be non-negative
        Returns:
        A Future object representing the pending result
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - If the position is negative
        NonWritableChannelException - If this channel was not opened for writing


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