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Java Standard Edition (SE)

ConcurrentMap


compact1, compact2, compact3
java.util.concurrent

Interface ConcurrentMap<K,V>

  • Type Parameters:
    K - the type of keys maintained by this map
    V - the type of mapped values
    All Superinterfaces:
    Map<K,V>
    All Known Subinterfaces:
    ConcurrentNavigableMap<K,V>
    All Known Implementing Classes:
    ConcurrentHashMap, ConcurrentSkipListMap


    public interface ConcurrentMap<K,V>
    extends Map<K,V>
    A Map providing thread safety and atomicity guarantees.

    Memory consistency effects: As with other concurrent collections, actions in a thread prior to placing an object into a ConcurrentMap as a key or value happen-before actions subsequent to the access or removal of that object from the ConcurrentMap in another thread.

    This interface is a member of the Java Collections Framework.

    Since:
    1.5
    • Nested Class Summary

      • Nested classes/interfaces inherited from interface java.util.Map

        Map.Entry<K,V>
    • Method Summary

      All Methods Instance Methods Abstract Methods Default Methods 
      Modifier and Type Method and Description
      default V compute(K key, BiFunction<? super K,? super V,? extends V> remappingFunction)
      Attempts to compute a mapping for the specified key and its current mapped value (or null if there is no current mapping).
      default V computeIfAbsent(K key, Function<? super K,? extends V> mappingFunction)
      If the specified key is not already associated with a value (or is mapped to null), attempts to compute its value using the given mapping function and enters it into this map unless null.
      default V computeIfPresent(K key, BiFunction<? super K,? super V,? extends V> remappingFunction)
      If the value for the specified key is present and non-null, attempts to compute a new mapping given the key and its current mapped value.
      default void forEach(BiConsumer<? super K,? super V> action)
      Performs the given action for each entry in this map until all entries have been processed or the action throws an exception.
      default V getOrDefault(Object key, V defaultValue)
      Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped, or defaultValue if this map contains no mapping for the key.
      default V merge(K key, V value, BiFunction<? super V,? super V,? extends V> remappingFunction)
      If the specified key is not already associated with a value or is associated with null, associates it with the given non-null value.
      V putIfAbsent(K key, V value)
      If the specified key is not already associated with a value, associate it with the given value.
      boolean remove(Object key, Object value)
      Removes the entry for a key only if currently mapped to a given value.
      V replace(K key, V value)
      Replaces the entry for a key only if currently mapped to some value.
      boolean replace(K key, V oldValue, V newValue)
      Replaces the entry for a key only if currently mapped to a given value.
      default void replaceAll(BiFunction<? super K,? super V,? extends V> function)
      Replaces each entry's value with the result of invoking the given function on that entry until all entries have been processed or the function throws an exception.
    • Method Detail

      • getOrDefault

        default V getOrDefault(Object key,
                               V defaultValue)
        Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped, or defaultValue if this map contains no mapping for the key.
        Specified by:
        getOrDefault in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Note:
        This implementation assumes that the ConcurrentMap cannot contain null values and get() returning null unambiguously means the key is absent. Implementations which support null values must override this default implementation.
        Parameters:
        key - the key whose associated value is to be returned
        defaultValue - the default mapping of the key
        Returns:
        the value to which the specified key is mapped, or defaultValue if this map contains no mapping for the key
        Throws:
        ClassCastException - if the key is of an inappropriate type for this map (optional)
        NullPointerException - if the specified key is null and this map does not permit null keys (optional)
        Since:
        1.8
      • forEach

        default void forEach(BiConsumer<? super K,? super V> action)
        Performs the given action for each entry in this map until all entries have been processed or the action throws an exception. Unless otherwise specified by the implementing class, actions are performed in the order of entry set iteration (if an iteration order is specified.) Exceptions thrown by the action are relayed to the caller.
        Specified by:
        forEach in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Requirements:
        The default implementation is equivalent to, for this map:
         
         for ((Map.Entry<K, V> entry : map.entrySet())
             action.accept(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
         
        Implementation Note:
        The default implementation assumes that IllegalStateException thrown by getKey() or getValue() indicates that the entry has been removed and cannot be processed. Operation continues for subsequent entries.
        Parameters:
        action - The action to be performed for each entry
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if the specified action is null
        Since:
        1.8
      • putIfAbsent

        V putIfAbsent(K key,
                      V value)
        If the specified key is not already associated with a value, associate it with the given value. This is equivalent to
         
         if (!map.containsKey(key))
           return map.put(key, value);
         else
           return map.get(key);
         
        except that the action is performed atomically.
        Specified by:
        putIfAbsent in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Note:
        This implementation intentionally re-abstracts the inappropriate default provided in Map.
        Parameters:
        key - key with which the specified value is to be associated
        value - value to be associated with the specified key
        Returns:
        the previous value associated with the specified key, or null if there was no mapping for the key. (A null return can also indicate that the map previously associated null with the key, if the implementation supports null values.)
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the put operation is not supported by this map
        ClassCastException - if the class of the specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map
        NullPointerException - if the specified key or value is null, and this map does not permit null keys or values
        IllegalArgumentException - if some property of the specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map
      • remove

        boolean remove(Object key,
                       Object value)
        Removes the entry for a key only if currently mapped to a given value. This is equivalent to
         
         if (map.containsKey(key) && Objects.equals(map.get(key), value)) {
           map.remove(key);
           return true;
         } else
           return false;
         
        except that the action is performed atomically.
        Specified by:
        remove in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Note:
        This implementation intentionally re-abstracts the inappropriate default provided in Map.
        Parameters:
        key - key with which the specified value is associated
        value - value expected to be associated with the specified key
        Returns:
        true if the value was removed
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the remove operation is not supported by this map
        ClassCastException - if the key or value is of an inappropriate type for this map (optional)
        NullPointerException - if the specified key or value is null, and this map does not permit null keys or values (optional)
      • replace

        boolean replace(K key,
                        V oldValue,
                        V newValue)
        Replaces the entry for a key only if currently mapped to a given value. This is equivalent to
         
         if (map.containsKey(key) && Objects.equals(map.get(key), oldValue)) {
           map.put(key, newValue);
           return true;
         } else
           return false;
         
        except that the action is performed atomically.
        Specified by:
        replace in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Note:
        This implementation intentionally re-abstracts the inappropriate default provided in Map.
        Parameters:
        key - key with which the specified value is associated
        oldValue - value expected to be associated with the specified key
        newValue - value to be associated with the specified key
        Returns:
        true if the value was replaced
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the put operation is not supported by this map
        ClassCastException - if the class of a specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map
        NullPointerException - if a specified key or value is null, and this map does not permit null keys or values
        IllegalArgumentException - if some property of a specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map
      • replace

        V replace(K key,
                  V value)
        Replaces the entry for a key only if currently mapped to some value. This is equivalent to
         
         if (map.containsKey(key)) {
           return map.put(key, value);
         } else
           return null;
         
        except that the action is performed atomically.
        Specified by:
        replace in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Note:
        This implementation intentionally re-abstracts the inappropriate default provided in Map.
        Parameters:
        key - key with which the specified value is associated
        value - value to be associated with the specified key
        Returns:
        the previous value associated with the specified key, or null if there was no mapping for the key. (A null return can also indicate that the map previously associated null with the key, if the implementation supports null values.)
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the put operation is not supported by this map
        ClassCastException - if the class of the specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map
        NullPointerException - if the specified key or value is null, and this map does not permit null keys or values
        IllegalArgumentException - if some property of the specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map
      • replaceAll

        default void replaceAll(BiFunction<? super K,? super V,? extends V> function)
        Replaces each entry's value with the result of invoking the given function on that entry until all entries have been processed or the function throws an exception. Exceptions thrown by the function are relayed to the caller.
        Specified by:
        replaceAll in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Requirements:

        The default implementation is equivalent to, for this map:

         
         for ((Map.Entry<K, V> entry : map.entrySet())
             do {
                K k = entry.getKey();
                V v = entry.getValue();
             } while(!replace(k, v, function.apply(k, v)));
         
        The default implementation may retry these steps when multiple threads attempt updates including potentially calling the function repeatedly for a given key.

        This implementation assumes that the ConcurrentMap cannot contain null values and get() returning null unambiguously means the key is absent. Implementations which support null values must override this default implementation.

        Parameters:
        function - the function to apply to each entry
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the set operation is not supported by this map's entry set iterator.
        NullPointerException - if function or a replacement value is null, and this map does not permit null keys or values (optional)
        ClassCastException - if a replacement value is of an inappropriate type for this map (optional)
        IllegalArgumentException - if some property of a replacement value prevents it from being stored in this map (optional)
        Since:
        1.8
      • computeIfAbsent

        default V computeIfAbsent(K key,
                                  Function<? super K,? extends V> mappingFunction)
        If the specified key is not already associated with a value (or is mapped to null), attempts to compute its value using the given mapping function and enters it into this map unless null.

        If the function returns null no mapping is recorded. If the function itself throws an (unchecked) exception, the exception is rethrown, and no mapping is recorded. The most common usage is to construct a new object serving as an initial mapped value or memoized result, as in:

         
         map.computeIfAbsent(key, k -> new Value(f(k)));
         

        Or to implement a multi-value map, Map<K,Collection<V>>, supporting multiple values per key:

         
         map.computeIfAbsent(key, k -> new HashSet<V>()).add(v);
         
        Specified by:
        computeIfAbsent in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Requirements:
        The default implementation is equivalent to the following steps for this map, then returning the current value or null if now absent:
         
         if (map.get(key) == null) {
             V newValue = mappingFunction.apply(key);
             if (newValue != null)
                 return map.putIfAbsent(key, newValue);
         }
         
        The default implementation may retry these steps when multiple threads attempt updates including potentially calling the mapping function multiple times.

        This implementation assumes that the ConcurrentMap cannot contain null values and get() returning null unambiguously means the key is absent. Implementations which support null values must override this default implementation.

        Parameters:
        key - key with which the specified value is to be associated
        mappingFunction - the function to compute a value
        Returns:
        the current (existing or computed) value associated with the specified key, or null if the computed value is null
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the put operation is not supported by this map (optional)
        ClassCastException - if the class of the specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map (optional)
        NullPointerException - if the specified key is null and this map does not support null keys, or the mappingFunction is null
        Since:
        1.8
      • computeIfPresent

        default V computeIfPresent(K key,
                                   BiFunction<? super K,? super V,? extends V> remappingFunction)
        If the value for the specified key is present and non-null, attempts to compute a new mapping given the key and its current mapped value.

        If the function returns null, the mapping is removed. If the function itself throws an (unchecked) exception, the exception is rethrown, and the current mapping is left unchanged.

        Specified by:
        computeIfPresent in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Requirements:
        The default implementation is equivalent to performing the following steps for this map, then returning the current value or null if now absent. :
         
         if (map.get(key) != null) {
             V oldValue = map.get(key);
             V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(key, oldValue);
             if (newValue != null)
                 map.replace(key, oldValue, newValue);
             else
                 map.remove(key, oldValue);
         }
         
        The default implementation may retry these steps when multiple threads attempt updates including potentially calling the remapping function multiple times.

        This implementation assumes that the ConcurrentMap cannot contain null values and get() returning null unambiguously means the key is absent. Implementations which support null values must override this default implementation.

        Parameters:
        key - key with which the specified value is to be associated
        remappingFunction - the function to compute a value
        Returns:
        the new value associated with the specified key, or null if none
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the put operation is not supported by this map (optional)
        ClassCastException - if the class of the specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map (optional)
        NullPointerException - if the specified key is null and this map does not support null keys, or the remappingFunction is null
        Since:
        1.8
      • compute

        default V compute(K key,
                          BiFunction<? super K,? super V,? extends V> remappingFunction)
        Attempts to compute a mapping for the specified key and its current mapped value (or null if there is no current mapping). For example, to either create or append a String msg to a value mapping:
         
         map.compute(key, (k, v) -> (v == null) ? msg : v.concat(msg))
        (Method merge() is often simpler to use for such purposes.)

        If the function returns null, the mapping is removed (or remains absent if initially absent). If the function itself throws an (unchecked) exception, the exception is rethrown, and the current mapping is left unchanged.

        Specified by:
        compute in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Requirements:
        The default implementation is equivalent to performing the following steps for this map, then returning the current value or null if absent:
         
         V oldValue = map.get(key);
         V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(key, oldValue);
         if (oldValue != null ) {
            if (newValue != null)
               map.replace(key, oldValue, newValue);
            else
               map.remove(key, oldValue);
         } else {
            if (newValue != null)
               map.putIfAbsent(key, newValue);
            else
               return null;
         }
         
        The default implementation may retry these steps when multiple threads attempt updates including potentially calling the remapping function multiple times.

        This implementation assumes that the ConcurrentMap cannot contain null values and get() returning null unambiguously means the key is absent. Implementations which support null values must override this default implementation.

        Parameters:
        key - key with which the specified value is to be associated
        remappingFunction - the function to compute a value
        Returns:
        the new value associated with the specified key, or null if none
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the put operation is not supported by this map (optional)
        ClassCastException - if the class of the specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map (optional)
        NullPointerException - if the specified key is null and this map does not support null keys, or the remappingFunction is null
        Since:
        1.8
      • merge

        default V merge(K key,
                        V value,
                        BiFunction<? super V,? super V,? extends V> remappingFunction)
        If the specified key is not already associated with a value or is associated with null, associates it with the given non-null value. Otherwise, replaces the associated value with the results of the given remapping function, or removes if the result is null. This method may be of use when combining multiple mapped values for a key. For example, to either create or append a String msg to a value mapping:
         
         map.merge(key, msg, String::concat)
         

        If the function returns null the mapping is removed. If the function itself throws an (unchecked) exception, the exception is rethrown, and the current mapping is left unchanged.

        Specified by:
        merge in interface Map<K,V>
        Implementation Requirements:
        The default implementation is equivalent to performing the following steps for this map, then returning the current value or null if absent:
         
         V oldValue = map.get(key);
         V newValue = (oldValue == null) ? value :
                      remappingFunction.apply(oldValue, value);
         if (newValue == null)
             map.remove(key);
         else
             map.put(key, newValue);
         

        The default implementation may retry these steps when multiple threads attempt updates including potentially calling the remapping function multiple times.

        This implementation assumes that the ConcurrentMap cannot contain null values and get() returning null unambiguously means the key is absent. Implementations which support null values must override this default implementation.

        Parameters:
        key - key with which the resulting value is to be associated
        value - the non-null value to be merged with the existing value associated with the key or, if no existing value or a null value is associated with the key, to be associated with the key
        remappingFunction - the function to recompute a value if present
        Returns:
        the new value associated with the specified key, or null if no value is associated with the key
        Throws:
        UnsupportedOperationException - if the put operation is not supported by this map (optional)
        ClassCastException - if the class of the specified key or value prevents it from being stored in this map (optional)
        NullPointerException - if the specified key is null and this map does not support null keys or the value or remappingFunction is null
        Since:
        1.8


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