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Java Standard Edition (SE)

GregorianCalendar


compact1, compact2, compact3
java.util

Class GregorianCalendar

  • All Implemented Interfaces:
    Serializable, Cloneable, Comparable<Calendar>


    public class GregorianCalendar
    extends Calendar
    GregorianCalendar is a concrete subclass of Calendar and provides the standard calendar system used by most of the world.

    GregorianCalendar is a hybrid calendar that supports both the Julian and Gregorian calendar systems with the support of a single discontinuity, which corresponds by default to the Gregorian date when the Gregorian calendar was instituted (October 15, 1582 in some countries, later in others). The cutover date may be changed by the caller by calling setGregorianChange().

    Historically, in those countries which adopted the Gregorian calendar first, October 4, 1582 (Julian) was thus followed by October 15, 1582 (Gregorian). This calendar models this correctly. Before the Gregorian cutover, GregorianCalendar implements the Julian calendar. The only difference between the Gregorian and the Julian calendar is the leap year rule. The Julian calendar specifies leap years every four years, whereas the Gregorian calendar omits century years which are not divisible by 400.

    GregorianCalendar implements proleptic Gregorian and Julian calendars. That is, dates are computed by extrapolating the current rules indefinitely far backward and forward in time. As a result, GregorianCalendar may be used for all years to generate meaningful and consistent results. However, dates obtained using GregorianCalendar are historically accurate only from March 1, 4 AD onward, when modern Julian calendar rules were adopted. Before this date, leap year rules were applied irregularly, and before 45 BC the Julian calendar did not even exist.

    Prior to the institution of the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Day was March 25. To avoid confusion, this calendar always uses January 1. A manual adjustment may be made if desired for dates that are prior to the Gregorian changeover and which fall between January 1 and March 24.

    Week Of Year and Week Year

    Values calculated for the WEEK_OF_YEAR field range from 1 to 53. The first week of a calendar year is the earliest seven day period starting on getFirstDayOfWeek() that contains at least getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() days from that year. It thus depends on the values of getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek(), getFirstDayOfWeek(), and the day of the week of January 1. Weeks between week 1 of one year and week 1 of the following year (exclusive) are numbered sequentially from 2 to 52 or 53 (except for year(s) involved in the Julian-Gregorian transition).

    The getFirstDayOfWeek() and getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() values are initialized using locale-dependent resources when constructing a GregorianCalendar. The week determination is compatible with the ISO 8601 standard when getFirstDayOfWeek() is MONDAY and getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() is 4, which values are used in locales where the standard is preferred. These values can explicitly be set by calling setFirstDayOfWeek() and setMinimalDaysInFirstWeek().

    A week year is in sync with a WEEK_OF_YEAR cycle. All weeks between the first and last weeks (inclusive) have the same week year value. Therefore, the first and last days of a week year may have different calendar year values.

    For example, January 1, 1998 is a Thursday. If getFirstDayOfWeek() is MONDAY and getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() is 4 (ISO 8601 standard compatible setting), then week 1 of 1998 starts on December 29, 1997, and ends on January 4, 1998. The week year is 1998 for the last three days of calendar year 1997. If, however, getFirstDayOfWeek() is SUNDAY, then week 1 of 1998 starts on January 4, 1998, and ends on January 10, 1998; the first three days of 1998 then are part of week 53 of 1997 and their week year is 1997.

    Week Of Month

    Values calculated for the WEEK_OF_MONTH field range from 0 to 6. Week 1 of a month (the days with WEEK_OF_MONTH = 1) is the earliest set of at least getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() contiguous days in that month, ending on the day before getFirstDayOfWeek(). Unlike week 1 of a year, week 1 of a month may be shorter than 7 days, need not start on getFirstDayOfWeek(), and will not include days of the previous month. Days of a month before week 1 have a WEEK_OF_MONTH of 0.

    For example, if getFirstDayOfWeek() is SUNDAY and getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() is 4, then the first week of January 1998 is Sunday, January 4 through Saturday, January 10. These days have a WEEK_OF_MONTH of 1. Thursday, January 1 through Saturday, January 3 have a WEEK_OF_MONTH of 0. If getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() is changed to 3, then January 1 through January 3 have a WEEK_OF_MONTH of 1.

    Default Fields Values

    The clear method sets calendar field(s) undefined. GregorianCalendar uses the following default value for each calendar field if its value is undefined.

    Field
    Default Value
    ERA
    AD
    YEAR
    1970
    MONTH
    JANUARY
    DAY_OF_MONTH
    1
    DAY_OF_WEEK
    the first day of week
    WEEK_OF_MONTH
    0
    DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH
    1
    AM_PM
    AM
    HOUR, HOUR_OF_DAY, MINUTE, SECOND, MILLISECOND
    0

    Default values are not applicable for the fields not listed above.

    Example:

     // get the supported ids for GMT-08:00 (Pacific Standard Time)
     String[] ids = TimeZone.getAvailableIDs(-8 * 60 * 60 * 1000);
     // if no ids were returned, something is wrong. get out.
     if (ids.length == 0)
         System.exit(0);
    
      // begin output
     System.out.println("Current Time");
    
     // create a Pacific Standard Time time zone
     SimpleTimeZone pdt = new SimpleTimeZone(-8 * 60 * 60 * 1000, ids[0]);
    
     // set up rules for Daylight Saving Time
     pdt.setStartRule(Calendar.APRIL, 1, Calendar.SUNDAY, 2 * 60 * 60 * 1000);
     pdt.setEndRule(Calendar.OCTOBER, -1, Calendar.SUNDAY, 2 * 60 * 60 * 1000);
    
     // create a GregorianCalendar with the Pacific Daylight time zone
     // and the current date and time
     Calendar calendar = new GregorianCalendar(pdt);
     Date trialTime = new Date();
     calendar.setTime(trialTime);
    
     // print out a bunch of interesting things
     System.out.println("ERA: " + calendar.get(Calendar.ERA));
     System.out.println("YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.YEAR));
     System.out.println("MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MONTH));
     System.out.println("WEEK_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_YEAR));
     System.out.println("WEEK_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH));
     System.out.println("DATE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DATE));
     System.out.println("DAY_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH));
     System.out.println("DAY_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR));
     System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK));
     System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH: "
                        + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH));
     System.out.println("AM_PM: " + calendar.get(Calendar.AM_PM));
     System.out.println("HOUR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR));
     System.out.println("HOUR_OF_DAY: " + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY));
     System.out.println("MINUTE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MINUTE));
     System.out.println("SECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.SECOND));
     System.out.println("MILLISECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MILLISECOND));
     System.out.println("ZONE_OFFSET: "
                        + (calendar.get(Calendar.ZONE_OFFSET)/(60*60*1000)));
     System.out.println("DST_OFFSET: "
                        + (calendar.get(Calendar.DST_OFFSET)/(60*60*1000)));
    
     System.out.println("Current Time, with hour reset to 3");
     calendar.clear(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY); // so doesn't override
     calendar.set(Calendar.HOUR, 3);
     System.out.println("ERA: " + calendar.get(Calendar.ERA));
     System.out.println("YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.YEAR));
     System.out.println("MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MONTH));
     System.out.println("WEEK_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_YEAR));
     System.out.println("WEEK_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH));
     System.out.println("DATE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DATE));
     System.out.println("DAY_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH));
     System.out.println("DAY_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR));
     System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK));
     System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH: "
                        + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH));
     System.out.println("AM_PM: " + calendar.get(Calendar.AM_PM));
     System.out.println("HOUR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR));
     System.out.println("HOUR_OF_DAY: " + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY));
     System.out.println("MINUTE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MINUTE));
     System.out.println("SECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.SECOND));
     System.out.println("MILLISECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MILLISECOND));
     System.out.println("ZONE_OFFSET: "
            + (calendar.get(Calendar.ZONE_OFFSET)/(60*60*1000))); // in hours
     System.out.println("DST_OFFSET: "
            + (calendar.get(Calendar.DST_OFFSET)/(60*60*1000))); // in hours
     
    Since:
    JDK1.1
    See Also:
    TimeZone, Serialized Form
    • Field Detail

      • BC

        public static final int BC
        Value of the ERA field indicating the period before the common era (before Christ), also known as BCE. The sequence of years at the transition from BC to AD is ..., 2 BC, 1 BC, 1 AD, 2 AD,...
        See Also:
        Calendar.ERA, Constant Field Values
      • AD

        public static final int AD
        Value of the ERA field indicating the common era (Anno Domini), also known as CE. The sequence of years at the transition from BC to AD is ..., 2 BC, 1 BC, 1 AD, 2 AD,...
        See Also:
        Calendar.ERA, Constant Field Values
    • Constructor Detail

      • GregorianCalendar

        public GregorianCalendar()
        Constructs a default GregorianCalendar using the current time in the default time zone with the default FORMAT locale.
      • GregorianCalendar

        public GregorianCalendar(TimeZone zone)
        Constructs a GregorianCalendar based on the current time in the given time zone with the default FORMAT locale.
        Parameters:
        zone - the given time zone.
      • GregorianCalendar

        public GregorianCalendar(Locale aLocale)
        Constructs a GregorianCalendar based on the current time in the default time zone with the given locale.
        Parameters:
        aLocale - the given locale.
      • GregorianCalendar

        public GregorianCalendar(TimeZone zone,
                                 Locale aLocale)
        Constructs a GregorianCalendar based on the current time in the given time zone with the given locale.
        Parameters:
        zone - the given time zone.
        aLocale - the given locale.
      • GregorianCalendar

        public GregorianCalendar(int year,
                                 int month,
                                 int dayOfMonth)
        Constructs a GregorianCalendar with the given date set in the default time zone with the default locale.
        Parameters:
        year - the value used to set the YEAR calendar field in the calendar.
        month - the value used to set the MONTH calendar field in the calendar. Month value is 0-based. e.g., 0 for January.
        dayOfMonth - the value used to set the DAY_OF_MONTH calendar field in the calendar.
      • GregorianCalendar

        public GregorianCalendar(int year,
                                 int month,
                                 int dayOfMonth,
                                 int hourOfDay,
                                 int minute)
        Constructs a GregorianCalendar with the given date and time set for the default time zone with the default locale.
        Parameters:
        year - the value used to set the YEAR calendar field in the calendar.
        month - the value used to set the MONTH calendar field in the calendar. Month value is 0-based. e.g., 0 for January.
        dayOfMonth - the value used to set the DAY_OF_MONTH calendar field in the calendar.
        hourOfDay - the value used to set the HOUR_OF_DAY calendar field in the calendar.
        minute - the value used to set the MINUTE calendar field in the calendar.
      • GregorianCalendar

        public GregorianCalendar(int year,
                                 int month,
                                 int dayOfMonth,
                                 int hourOfDay,
                                 int minute,
                                 int second)
        Constructs a GregorianCalendar with the given date and time set for the default time zone with the default locale.
        Parameters:
        year - the value used to set the YEAR calendar field in the calendar.
        month - the value used to set the MONTH calendar field in the calendar. Month value is 0-based. e.g., 0 for January.
        dayOfMonth - the value used to set the DAY_OF_MONTH calendar field in the calendar.
        hourOfDay - the value used to set the HOUR_OF_DAY calendar field in the calendar.
        minute - the value used to set the MINUTE calendar field in the calendar.
        second - the value used to set the SECOND calendar field in the calendar.
    • Method Detail

      • setGregorianChange

        public void setGregorianChange(Date date)
        Sets the GregorianCalendar change date. This is the point when the switch from Julian dates to Gregorian dates occurred. Default is October 15, 1582 (Gregorian). Previous to this, dates will be in the Julian calendar.

        To obtain a pure Julian calendar, set the change date to Date(Long.MAX_VALUE). To obtain a pure Gregorian calendar, set the change date to Date(Long.MIN_VALUE).

        Parameters:
        date - the given Gregorian cutover date.
      • getGregorianChange

        public final Date getGregorianChange()
        Gets the Gregorian Calendar change date. This is the point when the switch from Julian dates to Gregorian dates occurred. Default is October 15, 1582 (Gregorian). Previous to this, dates will be in the Julian calendar.
        Returns:
        the Gregorian cutover date for this GregorianCalendar object.
      • isLeapYear

        public boolean isLeapYear(int year)
        Determines if the given year is a leap year. Returns true if the given year is a leap year. To specify BC year numbers, 1 - year number must be given. For example, year BC 4 is specified as -3.
        Parameters:
        year - the given year.
        Returns:
        true if the given year is a leap year; false otherwise.
      • equals

        public boolean equals(Object obj)
        Compares this GregorianCalendar to the specified Object. The result is true if and only if the argument is a GregorianCalendar object that represents the same time value (millisecond offset from the Epoch) under the same Calendar parameters and Gregorian change date as this object.
        Overrides:
        equals in class Calendar
        Parameters:
        obj - the object to compare with.
        Returns:
        true if this object is equal to obj; false otherwise.
        See Also:
        Calendar.compareTo(Calendar)
      • add

        public void add(int field,
                        int amount)
        Adds the specified (signed) amount of time to the given calendar field, based on the calendar's rules.

        Add rule 1. The value of field after the call minus the value of field before the call is amount, modulo any overflow that has occurred in field. Overflow occurs when a field value exceeds its range and, as a result, the next larger field is incremented or decremented and the field value is adjusted back into its range.

        Add rule 2. If a smaller field is expected to be invariant, but it is impossible for it to be equal to its prior value because of changes in its minimum or maximum after field is changed, then its value is adjusted to be as close as possible to its expected value. A smaller field represents a smaller unit of time. HOUR is a smaller field than DAY_OF_MONTH. No adjustment is made to smaller fields that are not expected to be invariant. The calendar system determines what fields are expected to be invariant.

        Specified by:
        add in class Calendar
        Parameters:
        field - the calendar field.
        amount - the amount of date or time to be added to the field.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if field is ZONE_OFFSET, DST_OFFSET, or unknown, or if any calendar fields have out-of-range values in non-lenient mode.
        See Also:
        Calendar.roll(int,int), Calendar.set(int,int)
      • roll

        public void roll(int field,
                         boolean up)
        Adds or subtracts (up/down) a single unit of time on the given time field without changing larger fields.

        Example: Consider a GregorianCalendar originally set to December 31, 1999. Calling roll(Calendar.MONTH, true) sets the calendar to January 31, 1999. The YEAR field is unchanged because it is a larger field than MONTH.

        Specified by:
        roll in class Calendar
        Parameters:
        up - indicates if the value of the specified calendar field is to be rolled up or rolled down. Use true if rolling up, false otherwise.
        field - the time field.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if field is ZONE_OFFSET, DST_OFFSET, or unknown, or if any calendar fields have out-of-range values in non-lenient mode.
        See Also:
        add(int,int), Calendar.set(int,int)
      • roll

        public void roll(int field,
                         int amount)
        Adds a signed amount to the specified calendar field without changing larger fields. A negative roll amount means to subtract from field without changing larger fields. If the specified amount is 0, this method performs nothing.

        This method calls Calendar.complete() before adding the amount so that all the calendar fields are normalized. If there is any calendar field having an out-of-range value in non-lenient mode, then an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

        Example: Consider a GregorianCalendar originally set to August 31, 1999. Calling roll(Calendar.MONTH, 8) sets the calendar to April 30, 1999. Using a GregorianCalendar, the DAY_OF_MONTH field cannot be 31 in the month April. DAY_OF_MONTH is set to the closest possible value, 30. The YEAR field maintains the value of 1999 because it is a larger field than MONTH.

        Example: Consider a GregorianCalendar originally set to Sunday June 6, 1999. Calling roll(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH, -1) sets the calendar to Tuesday June 1, 1999, whereas calling add(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH, -1) sets the calendar to Sunday May 30, 1999. This is because the roll rule imposes an additional constraint: The MONTH must not change when the WEEK_OF_MONTH is rolled. Taken together with add rule 1, the resultant date must be between Tuesday June 1 and Saturday June 5. According to add rule 2, the DAY_OF_WEEK, an invariant when changing the WEEK_OF_MONTH, is set to Tuesday, the closest possible value to Sunday (where Sunday is the first day of the week).

        Overrides:
        roll in class Calendar
        Parameters:
        field - the calendar field.
        amount - the signed amount to add to field.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if field is ZONE_OFFSET, DST_OFFSET, or unknown, or if any calendar fields have out-of-range values in non-lenient mode.
        Since:
        1.2
        See Also:
        roll(int,boolean), add(int,int), Calendar.set(int,int)
      • clone

        public Object clone()
        Description copied from class: Calendar
        Creates and returns a copy of this object.
        Overrides:
        clone in class Calendar
        Returns:
        a copy of this object.
        See Also:
        Cloneable
      • getTimeZone

        public TimeZone getTimeZone()
        Description copied from class: Calendar
        Gets the time zone.
        Overrides:
        getTimeZone in class Calendar
        Returns:
        the time zone object associated with this calendar.
      • setTimeZone

        public void setTimeZone(TimeZone zone)
        Description copied from class: Calendar
        Sets the time zone with the given time zone value.
        Overrides:
        setTimeZone in class Calendar
        Parameters:
        zone - the given time zone.
      • setWeekDate

        public void setWeekDate(int weekYear,
                                int weekOfYear,
                                int dayOfWeek)
        Sets this GregorianCalendar to the date given by the date specifiers - weekYear, weekOfYear, and dayOfWeek. weekOfYear follows the WEEK_OF_YEAR numbering. The dayOfWeek value must be one of the DAY_OF_WEEK values: SUNDAY to SATURDAY.

        Note that the numeric day-of-week representation differs from the ISO 8601 standard, and that the weekOfYear numbering is compatible with the standard when getFirstDayOfWeek() is MONDAY and getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() is 4.

        Unlike the set method, all of the calendar fields and the instant of time value are calculated upon return.

        If weekOfYear is out of the valid week-of-year range in weekYear, the weekYear and weekOfYear values are adjusted in lenient mode, or an IllegalArgumentException is thrown in non-lenient mode.

        Overrides:
        setWeekDate in class Calendar
        Parameters:
        weekYear - the week year
        weekOfYear - the week number based on weekYear
        dayOfWeek - the day of week value: one of the constants for the DAY_OF_WEEK field: SUNDAY, ..., SATURDAY.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if any of the given date specifiers is invalid, or if any of the calendar fields are inconsistent with the given date specifiers in non-lenient mode
        Since:
        1.7
        See Also:
        isWeekDateSupported(), Calendar.getFirstDayOfWeek(), Calendar.getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek()
      • computeFields

        protected void computeFields()
        Converts the time value (millisecond offset from the Epoch) to calendar field values. The time is not recomputed first; to recompute the time, then the fields, call the complete method.
        Specified by:
        computeFields in class Calendar
        See Also:
        Calendar.complete()
      • toZonedDateTime

        public ZonedDateTime toZonedDateTime()
        Converts this object to a ZonedDateTime that represents the same point on the time-line as this GregorianCalendar.

        Since this object supports a Julian-Gregorian cutover date and ZonedDateTime does not, it is possible that the resulting year, month and day will have different values. The result will represent the correct date in the ISO calendar system, which will also be the same value for Modified Julian Days.

        Returns:
        a zoned date-time representing the same point on the time-line as this gregorian calendar
        Since:
        1.8
      • from

        public static GregorianCalendar from(ZonedDateTime zdt)
        Obtains an instance of GregorianCalendar with the default locale from a ZonedDateTime object.

        Since ZonedDateTime does not support a Julian-Gregorian cutover date and uses ISO calendar system, the return GregorianCalendar is a pure Gregorian calendar and uses ISO 8601 standard for week definitions, which has MONDAY as the FirstDayOfWeek and 4 as the value of the MinimalDaysInFirstWeek.

        ZoneDateTime can store points on the time-line further in the future and further in the past than GregorianCalendar. In this scenario, this method will throw an IllegalArgumentException exception.

        Parameters:
        zdt - the zoned date-time object to convert
        Returns:
        the gregorian calendar representing the same point on the time-line as the zoned date-time provided
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if zdt is null
        IllegalArgumentException - if the zoned date-time is too large to represent as a GregorianCalendar
        Since:
        1.8


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