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Android Reference

ArabicShaping


android.icu.text

Class ArabicShaping



  • public class ArabicShaping
    extends Object
    Shape Arabic text on a character basis.

    ArabicShaping performs basic operations for "shaping" Arabic text. It is most useful for use with legacy data formats and legacy display technology (simple terminals). All operations are performed on Unicode characters.

    Text-based shaping means that some character code points in the text are replaced by others depending on the context. It transforms one kind of text into another. In comparison, modern displays for Arabic text select appropriate, context-dependent font glyphs for each text element, which means that they transform text into a glyph vector.

    Text transformations are necessary when modern display technology is not available or when text needs to be transformed to or from legacy formats that use "shaped" characters. Since the Arabic script is cursive, connecting adjacent letters to each other, computers select images for each letter based on the surrounding letters. This usually results in four images per Arabic letter: initial, middle, final, and isolated forms. In Unicode, on the other hand, letters are normally stored abstract, and a display system is expected to select the necessary glyphs. (This makes searching and other text processing easier because the same letter has only one code.) It is possible to mimic this with text transformations because there are characters in Unicode that are rendered as letters with a specific shape (or cursive connectivity). They were included for interoperability with legacy systems and codepages, and for unsophisticated display systems.

    A second kind of text transformations is supported for Arabic digits: For compatibility with legacy codepages that only include European digits, it is possible to replace one set of digits by another, changing the character code points. These operations can be performed for either Arabic-Indic Digits (U+0660...U+0669) or Eastern (Extended) Arabic-Indic digits (U+06f0...U+06f9).

    Some replacements may result in more or fewer characters (code points). By default, this means that the destination buffer may receive text with a length different from the source length. Some legacy systems rely on the length of the text to be constant. They expect extra spaces to be added or consumed either next to the affected character or at the end of the text.

    • Field Summary

      Fields
      Modifier and Type Field and Description
      static int DIGIT_TYPE_AN
      Digit type option: Use Arabic-Indic digits (U+0660...U+0669).
      static int DIGIT_TYPE_AN_EXTENDED
      Digit type option: Use Eastern (Extended) Arabic-Indic digits (U+06f0...U+06f9).
      static int DIGIT_TYPE_MASK
      Bit mask for digit type options.
      static int DIGITS_AN2EN
      Digit shaping option: Replace Arabic-Indic digits by European digits (U+0030...U+0039).
      static int DIGITS_EN2AN
      Digit shaping option: Replace European digits (U+0030...U+0039) by Arabic-Indic digits.
      static int DIGITS_EN2AN_INIT_AL
      Digit shaping option: Replace European digits (U+0030...U+0039) by Arabic-Indic digits if the most recent strongly directional character is an Arabic letter (its Bidi direction value is RIGHT_TO_LEFT_ARABIC).
      static int DIGITS_EN2AN_INIT_LR
      Digit shaping option: Replace European digits (U+0030...U+0039) by Arabic-Indic digits if the most recent strongly directional character is an Arabic letter (its Bidi direction value is RIGHT_TO_LEFT_ARABIC).
      static int DIGITS_MASK
      Bit mask for digit shaping options.
      static int DIGITS_NOOP
      Digit shaping option: do not perform digit shaping.
      static int LAMALEF_AUTO
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int LAMALEF_BEGIN
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int LAMALEF_END
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int LAMALEF_MASK
      Bit mask for LamAlef memory options.
      static int LAMALEF_NEAR
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int LAMALEF_RESIZE
      Memory option: allow the result to have a different length than the source.
      static int LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_AT_BEGINNING
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_AT_END
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_NEAR
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int LENGTH_GROW_SHRINK
      Memory option: allow the result to have a different length than the source.
      static int LENGTH_MASK
      Bit mask for memory options.
      static int LETTERS_MASK
      Bit mask for letter shaping options.
      static int LETTERS_NOOP
      Letter shaping option: do not perform letter shaping.
      static int LETTERS_SHAPE
      Letter shaping option: replace normative letter characters in the U+0600 (Arabic) block, by shaped ones in the U+FE70 (Presentation Forms B) block.
      static int LETTERS_SHAPE_TASHKEEL_ISOLATED
      Letter shaping option: replace normative letter characters in the U+0600 (Arabic) block, except for the TASHKEEL characters at U+064B...U+0652, by shaped ones in the U+Fe70 (Presentation Forms B) block.
      static int LETTERS_UNSHAPE
      Letter shaping option: replace shaped letter characters in the U+FE70 (Presentation Forms B) block by normative ones in the U+0600 (Arabic) block.
      static int SEEN_MASK
      Bit mask for Seen memory options.
      static int SEEN_TWOCELL_NEAR
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int SHAPE_TAIL_NEW_UNICODE
      If this option is used, shaping will use the new Unicode code point for TAIL (i.e.
      static int SHAPE_TAIL_TYPE_MASK
      Bit mask for new Unicode Tail option
      static ArabicShaping SHAPER
      static int SPACES_RELATIVE_TO_TEXT_BEGIN_END
      This option effects the meaning of BEGIN and END options.
      static int SPACES_RELATIVE_TO_TEXT_MASK
      Bit mask for swapping BEGIN and END for Visual LTR text
      static int TASHKEEL_BEGIN
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int TASHKEEL_END
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int TASHKEEL_MASK
      Bit mask for Tashkeel replacement with Space or Tatweel memory options.
      static int TASHKEEL_REPLACE_BY_TATWEEL
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
      static int TASHKEEL_RESIZE
      Memory option: allow the result to have a different length than the source.
      static int TEXT_DIRECTION_LOGICAL
      Direction indicator: the source is in logical (keyboard) order.
      static int TEXT_DIRECTION_MASK
      Bit mask for direction indicators.
      static int TEXT_DIRECTION_VISUAL_LTR
      Direction indicator: the source is in visual (display) order, that is, the leftmost displayed character is stored first.
      static int TEXT_DIRECTION_VISUAL_RTL
      Direction indicator:the source is in visual RTL order, the rightmost displayed character stored first.
      static int YEHHAMZA_MASK
      Bit mask for YehHamza memory options.
      static int YEHHAMZA_TWOCELL_NEAR
      Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source.
    • Constructor Summary

      Constructors
      Constructor and Description
      ArabicShaping(int options)
      Construct ArabicShaping using the options flags.
    • Method Summary

      Methods
      Modifier and Type Method and Description
      static int countSpaceSub(char[] dest, int length, char subChar)
      boolean equals(Object rhs)
      Compares this instance with the specified object and indicates if they are equal.
      static int flipArray(char[] dest, int start, int e, int w)
      int hashCode()
      Returns an integer hash code for this object.
      void shape(char[] source, int start, int length)
      Convert a range of text in place.
      int shape(char[] source, int sourceStart, int sourceLength, char[] dest, int destStart, int destSize)
      Convert a range of text in the source array, putting the result into a range of text in the destination array, and return the number of characters written.
      String shape(String text)
      Convert a string, returning the new string.
      static void shiftArray(char[] dest, int start, int e, char subChar)
      String toString()
      Returns a string containing a concise, human-readable description of this object.
    • Field Detail

      • SEEN_TWOCELL_NEAR

        public static final int SEEN_TWOCELL_NEAR
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. Shaping mode: The SEEN family character will expand into two characters using space near the SEEN family character(i.e. the space after the character). if there are no spaces found, ArabicShapingException will be thrown De-shaping mode: Any Seen character followed by Tail character will be replaced by one cell Seen and a space will replace the Tail. Affects: Seen options
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SEEN_MASK

        public static final int SEEN_MASK
        Bit mask for Seen memory options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • YEHHAMZA_TWOCELL_NEAR

        public static final int YEHHAMZA_TWOCELL_NEAR
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. Shaping mode: The YEHHAMZA character will expand into two characters using space near it (i.e. the space after the character) if there are no spaces found, ArabicShapingException will be thrown De-shaping mode: Any Yeh (final or isolated) character followed by Hamza character will be replaced by one cell YehHamza and space will replace the Hamza. Affects: YehHamza options
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • YEHHAMZA_MASK

        public static final int YEHHAMZA_MASK
        Bit mask for YehHamza memory options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TASHKEEL_BEGIN

        public static final int TASHKEEL_BEGIN
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. Shaping mode: Tashkeel characters will be replaced by spaces. Spaces will be placed at beginning of the buffer De-shaping mode: N/A Affects: Tashkeel options
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TASHKEEL_END

        public static final int TASHKEEL_END
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. Shaping mode: Tashkeel characters will be replaced by spaces. Spaces will be placed at end of the buffer De-shaping mode: N/A Affects: Tashkeel options
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TASHKEEL_RESIZE

        public static final int TASHKEEL_RESIZE
        Memory option: allow the result to have a different length than the source. Shaping mode: Tashkeel characters will be removed, buffer length will shrink. De-shaping mode: N/A Affects: Tashkeel options
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TASHKEEL_REPLACE_BY_TATWEEL

        public static final int TASHKEEL_REPLACE_BY_TATWEEL
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. Shaping mode: Tashkeel characters will be replaced by Tatweel if it is connected to adjacent characters (i.e. shaped on Tatweel) or replaced by space if it is not connected. De-shaping mode: N/A Affects: YehHamza options
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TASHKEEL_MASK

        public static final int TASHKEEL_MASK
        Bit mask for Tashkeel replacement with Space or Tatweel memory options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SPACES_RELATIVE_TO_TEXT_BEGIN_END

        public static final int SPACES_RELATIVE_TO_TEXT_BEGIN_END
        This option effects the meaning of BEGIN and END options. if this option is not used the default for BEGIN and END will be as following: The Default (for both Visual LTR, Visual RTL and Logical Text) 1. BEGIN always refers to the start address of physical memory. 2. END always refers to the end address of physical memory. If this option is used it will swap the meaning of BEGIN and END only for Visual LTR text. The affect on BEGIN and END Memory Options will be as following: A. BEGIN For Visual LTR text: This will be the beginning (right side) of the visual text (corresponding to the physical memory address end, same as END in default behavior) B. BEGIN For Logical text: Same as BEGIN in default behavior. C. END For Visual LTR text: This will be the end (left side) of the visual text. (corresponding to the physical memory address beginning, same as BEGIN in default behavior) D. END For Logical text: Same as END in default behavior. Affects: All LamAlef BEGIN, END and AUTO options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SPACES_RELATIVE_TO_TEXT_MASK

        public static final int SPACES_RELATIVE_TO_TEXT_MASK
        Bit mask for swapping BEGIN and END for Visual LTR text
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SHAPE_TAIL_NEW_UNICODE

        public static final int SHAPE_TAIL_NEW_UNICODE
        If this option is used, shaping will use the new Unicode code point for TAIL (i.e. 0xFE73). If this option is not specified (Default), old unofficial Unicode TAIL code point is used (i.e. 0x200B) De-shaping will not use this option as it will always search for both the new Unicode code point for the TAIL (i.e. 0xFE73) or the old unofficial Unicode TAIL code point (i.e. 0x200B) and de-shape the Seen-Family letter accordingly. Shaping Mode: Only shaping. De-shaping Mode: N/A. Affects: All Seen options
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SHAPE_TAIL_TYPE_MASK

        public static final int SHAPE_TAIL_TYPE_MASK
        Bit mask for new Unicode Tail option
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LENGTH_GROW_SHRINK

        public static final int LENGTH_GROW_SHRINK
        Memory option: allow the result to have a different length than the source.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LAMALEF_RESIZE

        public static final int LAMALEF_RESIZE
        Memory option: allow the result to have a different length than the source. Affects: LamAlef options This option is an alias to LENGTH_GROW_SHRINK
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_NEAR

        public static final int LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_NEAR
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. If more room is necessary, then try to consume spaces next to modified characters.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LAMALEF_NEAR

        public static final int LAMALEF_NEAR
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. If more room is necessary, then try to consume spaces next to modified characters. Affects: LamAlef options This option is an alias to LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_NEAR
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_AT_END

        public static final int LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_AT_END
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. If more room is necessary, then try to consume spaces at the end of the text.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LAMALEF_END

        public static final int LAMALEF_END
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. If more room is necessary, then try to consume spaces at the end of the text. Affects: LamAlef options This option is an alias to LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_AT_END
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_AT_BEGINNING

        public static final int LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_AT_BEGINNING
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. If more room is necessary, then try to consume spaces at the beginning of the text.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LAMALEF_BEGIN

        public static final int LAMALEF_BEGIN
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. If more room is necessary, then try to consume spaces at the beginning of the text. Affects: LamAlef options This option is an alias to LENGTH_FIXED_SPACES_AT_BEGINNING
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LAMALEF_AUTO

        public static final int LAMALEF_AUTO
        Memory option: the result must have the same length as the source. Shaping Mode: For each LAMALEF character found, expand LAMALEF using space at end. If there is no space at end, use spaces at beginning of the buffer. If there is no space at beginning of the buffer, use spaces at the near (i.e. the space after the LAMALEF character). Deshaping Mode: Perform the same function as the flag equals LAMALEF_END. Affects: LamAlef options
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LENGTH_MASK

        public static final int LENGTH_MASK
        Bit mask for memory options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LAMALEF_MASK

        public static final int LAMALEF_MASK
        Bit mask for LamAlef memory options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TEXT_DIRECTION_LOGICAL

        public static final int TEXT_DIRECTION_LOGICAL
        Direction indicator: the source is in logical (keyboard) order.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TEXT_DIRECTION_VISUAL_RTL

        public static final int TEXT_DIRECTION_VISUAL_RTL
        Direction indicator:the source is in visual RTL order, the rightmost displayed character stored first. This option is an alias to U_SHAPE_TEXT_DIRECTION_LOGICAL
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TEXT_DIRECTION_VISUAL_LTR

        public static final int TEXT_DIRECTION_VISUAL_LTR
        Direction indicator: the source is in visual (display) order, that is, the leftmost displayed character is stored first.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TEXT_DIRECTION_MASK

        public static final int TEXT_DIRECTION_MASK
        Bit mask for direction indicators.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LETTERS_NOOP

        public static final int LETTERS_NOOP
        Letter shaping option: do not perform letter shaping.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LETTERS_SHAPE

        public static final int LETTERS_SHAPE
        Letter shaping option: replace normative letter characters in the U+0600 (Arabic) block, by shaped ones in the U+FE70 (Presentation Forms B) block. Performs Lam-Alef ligature substitution.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LETTERS_UNSHAPE

        public static final int LETTERS_UNSHAPE
        Letter shaping option: replace shaped letter characters in the U+FE70 (Presentation Forms B) block by normative ones in the U+0600 (Arabic) block. Converts Lam-Alef ligatures to pairs of Lam and Alef characters, consuming spaces if required.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LETTERS_SHAPE_TASHKEEL_ISOLATED

        public static final int LETTERS_SHAPE_TASHKEEL_ISOLATED
        Letter shaping option: replace normative letter characters in the U+0600 (Arabic) block, except for the TASHKEEL characters at U+064B...U+0652, by shaped ones in the U+Fe70 (Presentation Forms B) block. The TASHKEEL characters will always be converted to the isolated forms rather than to their correct shape.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LETTERS_MASK

        public static final int LETTERS_MASK
        Bit mask for letter shaping options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGITS_NOOP

        public static final int DIGITS_NOOP
        Digit shaping option: do not perform digit shaping.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGITS_EN2AN

        public static final int DIGITS_EN2AN
        Digit shaping option: Replace European digits (U+0030...U+0039) by Arabic-Indic digits.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGITS_AN2EN

        public static final int DIGITS_AN2EN
        Digit shaping option: Replace Arabic-Indic digits by European digits (U+0030...U+0039).
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGITS_EN2AN_INIT_LR

        public static final int DIGITS_EN2AN_INIT_LR
        Digit shaping option: Replace European digits (U+0030...U+0039) by Arabic-Indic digits if the most recent strongly directional character is an Arabic letter (its Bidi direction value is RIGHT_TO_LEFT_ARABIC). The initial state at the start of the text is assumed to be not an Arabic, letter, so European digits at the start of the text will not change. Compare to DIGITS_ALEN2AN_INIT_AL.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGITS_EN2AN_INIT_AL

        public static final int DIGITS_EN2AN_INIT_AL
        Digit shaping option: Replace European digits (U+0030...U+0039) by Arabic-Indic digits if the most recent strongly directional character is an Arabic letter (its Bidi direction value is RIGHT_TO_LEFT_ARABIC). The initial state at the start of the text is assumed to be an Arabic, letter, so European digits at the start of the text will change. Compare to DIGITS_ALEN2AN_INT_LR.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGITS_MASK

        public static final int DIGITS_MASK
        Bit mask for digit shaping options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGIT_TYPE_AN

        public static final int DIGIT_TYPE_AN
        Digit type option: Use Arabic-Indic digits (U+0660...U+0669).
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGIT_TYPE_AN_EXTENDED

        public static final int DIGIT_TYPE_AN_EXTENDED
        Digit type option: Use Eastern (Extended) Arabic-Indic digits (U+06f0...U+06f9).
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIGIT_TYPE_MASK

        public static final int DIGIT_TYPE_MASK
        Bit mask for digit type options.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
    • Constructor Detail

      • ArabicShaping

        public ArabicShaping(int options)
        Construct ArabicShaping using the options flags. The flags are as follows:
        'LENGTH' flags control whether the text can change size, and if not, how to maintain the size of the text when LamAlef ligatures are formed or broken.
        'TEXT_DIRECTION' flags control whether the text is read and written in visual order or in logical order.
        'LETTERS_SHAPE' flags control whether conversion is to or from presentation forms.
        'DIGITS' flags control whether digits are shaped, and whether from European to Arabic-Indic or vice-versa.
        'DIGIT_TYPE' flags control whether standard or extended Arabic-Indic digits are used when performing digit conversion.
    • Method Detail

      • shape

        public int shape(char[] source,
                int sourceStart,
                int sourceLength,
                char[] dest,
                int destStart,
                int destSize)
                  throws android.icu.text.ArabicShaping.ArabicShapingException
        Convert a range of text in the source array, putting the result into a range of text in the destination array, and return the number of characters written.
        Parameters:
        source - An array containing the input text
        sourceStart - The start of the range of text to convert
        sourceLength - The length of the range of text to convert
        dest - The destination array that will receive the result. It may be NULL only if destSize is 0.
        destStart - The start of the range of the destination buffer to use.
        destSize - The size (capacity) of the destination buffer. If destSize is 0, then no output is produced, but the necessary buffer size is returned ("preflighting"). This does not validate the text against the options, for example, if letters are being unshaped, and spaces are being consumed following lamalef, this will not detect a lamalef without a corresponding space. An error will be thrown when the actual conversion is attempted.
        Returns:
        The number of chars written to the destination buffer. If an error occurs, then no output was written, or it may be incomplete.
        Throws:
        ArabicShapingException - if the text cannot be converted according to the options.
        android.icu.text.ArabicShaping.ArabicShapingException
      • shape

        public void shape(char[] source,
                 int start,
                 int length)
                   throws android.icu.text.ArabicShaping.ArabicShapingException
        Convert a range of text in place. This may only be used if the Length option does not grow or shrink the text.
        Parameters:
        source - An array containing the input text
        start - The start of the range of text to convert
        length - The length of the range of text to convert
        Throws:
        ArabicShapingException - if the text cannot be converted according to the options.
        android.icu.text.ArabicShaping.ArabicShapingException
      • shape

        public String shape(String text)
                     throws android.icu.text.ArabicShaping.ArabicShapingException
        Convert a string, returning the new string.
        Parameters:
        text - the string to convert
        Returns:
        the converted string
        Throws:
        ArabicShapingException - if the string cannot be converted according to the options.
        android.icu.text.ArabicShaping.ArabicShapingException
      • equals

        public boolean equals(Object rhs)
        Description copied from class: Object
        Compares this instance with the specified object and indicates if they are equal. In order to be equal, o must represent the same object as this instance using a class-specific comparison. The general contract is that this comparison should be reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. Also, no object reference other than null is equal to null.

        The default implementation returns true only if this == o. See Writing a correct equals method if you intend implementing your own equals method.

        The general contract for the equals and Object.hashCode() methods is that if equals returns true for any two objects, then hashCode() must return the same value for these objects. This means that subclasses of Object usually override either both methods or neither of them.

        Overrides:
        equals in class Object
        Parameters:
        rhs - the object to compare this instance with.
        Returns:
        true if the specified object is equal to this Object; false otherwise.
        See Also:
        Object.hashCode()
      • hashCode

        public int hashCode()
        Description copied from class: Object
        Returns an integer hash code for this object. By contract, any two objects for which Object.equals(java.lang.Object) returns true must return the same hash code value. This means that subclasses of Object usually override both methods or neither method.

        Note that hash values must not change over time unless information used in equals comparisons also changes.

        See Writing a correct hashCode method if you intend implementing your own hashCode method.

        Overrides:
        hashCode in class Object
        Returns:
        this object's hash code.
        See Also:
        Object.equals(java.lang.Object)
      • toString

        public String toString()
        Description copied from class: Object
        Returns a string containing a concise, human-readable description of this object. Subclasses are encouraged to override this method and provide an implementation that takes into account the object's type and data. The default implementation is equivalent to the following expression:
           getClass().getName() + '@' + Integer.toHexString(hashCode())

        See Writing a useful toString method if you intend implementing your own toString method.

        Overrides:
        toString in class Object
        Returns:
        a printable representation of this object.
      • countSpaceSub

        public static int countSpaceSub(char[] dest,
                        int length,
                        char subChar)
      • shiftArray

        public static void shiftArray(char[] dest,
                      int start,
                      int e,
                      char subChar)
      • flipArray

        public static int flipArray(char[] dest,
                    int start,
                    int e,
                    int w)


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