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Android Reference

Character


java.lang

Class Character

    • Nested Class Summary

      Nested Classes
      Modifier and Type Class and Description
      static class Character.Subset
      static class Character.UnicodeBlock
      Represents a block of Unicode characters, as defined by the Unicode 4.0.1 specification.
    • Constructor Summary

      Constructors
      Constructor and Description
      Character(char value)
      Constructs a new Character with the specified primitive char value.
    • Method Summary

      Methods
      Modifier and Type Method and Description
      static int charCount(int codePoint)
      Calculates the number of char values required to represent the specified Unicode code point.
      char charValue()
      Gets the primitive value of this character.
      static int codePointAt(char[] seq, int index)
      Returns the code point at index in the specified array of character units.
      static int codePointAt(char[] seq, int index, int limit)
      Returns the code point at index in the specified array of character units, where index has to be less than limit.
      static int codePointAt(CharSequence seq, int index)
      Returns the code point at index in the specified sequence of character units.
      static int codePointBefore(char[] seq, int index)
      Returns the code point that precedes index in the specified array of character units.
      static int codePointBefore(char[] seq, int index, int start)
      Returns the code point that precedes the index in the specified array of character units and is not less than start.
      static int codePointBefore(CharSequence seq, int index)
      Returns the code point that precedes index in the specified sequence of character units.
      static int codePointCount(char[] seq, int offset, int count)
      Counts the number of Unicode code points in the subsequence of the specified char array, as delineated by offset and count.
      static int codePointCount(CharSequence seq, int beginIndex, int endIndex)
      Counts the number of Unicode code points in the subsequence of the specified character sequence, as delineated by beginIndex and endIndex.
      static int compare(char lhs, char rhs)
      Compares two char values.
      int compareTo(Character c)
      Compares this object to the specified character object to determine their relative order.
      static int digit(char c, int radix)
      Convenience method to determine the value of the specified character c in the supplied radix.
      static int digit(int codePoint, int radix)
      Convenience method to determine the value of the character codePoint in the supplied radix.
      boolean equals(Object object)
      Compares this object with the specified object and indicates if they are equal.
      static char forDigit(int digit, int radix)
      Returns the character which represents the specified digit in the specified radix.
      static byte getDirectionality(char c)
      Gets the Unicode directionality of the specified character.
      static byte getDirectionality(int codePoint)
      Gets the Unicode directionality of the specified character.
      static String getName(int codePoint)
      Returns the name of the given code point, or null if the code point is unassigned.
      static int getNumericValue(char c)
      Returns the numeric value of the specified Unicode character.
      static int getNumericValue(int codePoint)
      Gets the numeric value of the specified Unicode code point.
      static int getType(char c)
      Gets the general Unicode category of the specified character.
      static int getType(int codePoint)
      Gets the general Unicode category of the specified code point.
      int hashCode()
      Returns an integer hash code for this object.
      static char highSurrogate(int codePoint)
      Returns the high surrogate for the given code point.
      static boolean isBmpCodePoint(int codePoint)
      Tests whether the given code point is in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP).
      static boolean isDefined(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is defined in the Unicode specification.
      static boolean isDefined(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is defined in the Unicode specification.
      static boolean isDigit(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a digit.
      static boolean isDigit(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a digit.
      static boolean isHighSurrogate(char ch)
      Indicates whether ch is a high- (or leading-) surrogate code unit that is used for representing supplementary characters in UTF-16 encoding.
      static boolean isIdentifierIgnorable(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is ignorable in a Java or Unicode identifier.
      static boolean isIdentifierIgnorable(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is ignorable in a Java or Unicode identifier.
      static boolean isISOControl(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is an ISO control character.
      static boolean isISOControl(int c)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is an ISO control character.
      static boolean isJavaIdentifierPart(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a valid part of a Java identifier other than the first character.
      static boolean isJavaIdentifierPart(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a valid part of a Java identifier other than the first character.
      static boolean isJavaIdentifierStart(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a valid first character for a Java identifier.
      static boolean isJavaIdentifierStart(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a valid first character for a Java identifier.
      static boolean isJavaLetter(char c)
      static boolean isJavaLetterOrDigit(char c)
      static boolean isLetter(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a letter.
      static boolean isLetter(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a letter.
      static boolean isLetterOrDigit(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a letter or a digit.
      static boolean isLetterOrDigit(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a letter or a digit.
      static boolean isLowerCase(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a lower case letter.
      static boolean isLowerCase(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a lower case letter.
      static boolean isLowSurrogate(char ch)
      Indicates whether ch is a low- (or trailing-) surrogate code unit that is used for representing supplementary characters in UTF-16 encoding.
      static boolean isMirrored(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is mirrored.
      static boolean isMirrored(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is mirrored.
      static boolean isSpace(char c)
      Deprecated.
      static boolean isSpaceChar(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a Unicode space character.
      static boolean isSpaceChar(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a Unicode space character.
      static boolean isSupplementaryCodePoint(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether codePoint is within the supplementary code point range.
      static boolean isSurrogate(char ch)
      Tests whether the given character is a high or low surrogate.
      static boolean isSurrogatePair(char high, char low)
      Indicates whether the specified character pair is a valid surrogate pair.
      static boolean isTitleCase(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a titlecase character.
      static boolean isTitleCase(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a titlecase character.
      static boolean isUnicodeIdentifierPart(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is valid as part of a Unicode identifier other than the first character.
      static boolean isUnicodeIdentifierPart(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is valid as part of a Unicode identifier other than the first character.
      static boolean isUnicodeIdentifierStart(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a valid initial character for a Unicode identifier.
      static boolean isUnicodeIdentifierStart(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a valid initial character for a Unicode identifier.
      static boolean isUpperCase(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is an upper case letter.
      static boolean isUpperCase(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is an upper case letter.
      static boolean isValidCodePoint(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether codePoint is a valid Unicode code point.
      static boolean isWhitespace(char c)
      Indicates whether the specified character is a whitespace character in Java.
      static boolean isWhitespace(int codePoint)
      Indicates whether the specified code point is a whitespace character in Java.
      static char lowSurrogate(int codePoint)
      Returns the low surrogate for the given code point.
      static int offsetByCodePoints(char[] seq, int start, int count, int index, int codePointOffset)
      Determines the index in a subsequence of the specified character array that is offset codePointOffset code points from index.
      static int offsetByCodePoints(CharSequence seq, int index, int codePointOffset)
      Determines the index in the specified character sequence that is offset codePointOffset code points from index.
      static char reverseBytes(char c)
      Reverses the order of the first and second byte in the specified character.
      static char[] toChars(int codePoint)
      Converts the specified Unicode code point into a UTF-16 encoded sequence and returns it as a char array.
      static int toChars(int codePoint, char[] dst, int dstIndex)
      Converts the specified Unicode code point into a UTF-16 encoded sequence and copies the value(s) into the char array dst, starting at index dstIndex.
      static int toCodePoint(char high, char low)
      Converts a surrogate pair into a Unicode code point.
      static char toLowerCase(char c)
      Returns the lower case equivalent for the specified character if the character is an upper case letter.
      static int toLowerCase(int codePoint)
      Returns the lower case equivalent for the specified code point if it is an upper case letter.
      String toString()
      Returns a string containing a concise, human-readable description of this object.
      static String toString(char value)
      Converts the specified character to its string representation.
      static char toTitleCase(char c)
      Returns the title case equivalent for the specified character if it exists.
      static int toTitleCase(int codePoint)
      Returns the title case equivalent for the specified code point if it exists.
      static char toUpperCase(char c)
      Returns the upper case equivalent for the specified character if the character is a lower case letter.
      static int toUpperCase(int codePoint)
      Returns the upper case equivalent for the specified code point if the code point is a lower case letter.
      static Character valueOf(char c)
      Returns a Character instance for the char value passed.
    • Field Detail

      • MIN_VALUE

        public static final char MIN_VALUE
        The minimum Character value.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MAX_VALUE

        public static final char MAX_VALUE
        The maximum Character value.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MIN_RADIX

        public static final int MIN_RADIX
        The minimum radix used for conversions between characters and integers.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MAX_RADIX

        public static final int MAX_RADIX
        The maximum radix used for conversions between characters and integers.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TYPE

        public static final Class<Character> TYPE
        The Class object that represents the primitive type char.
      • UNASSIGNED

        public static final byte UNASSIGNED
        Unicode category constant Cn.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • UPPERCASE_LETTER

        public static final byte UPPERCASE_LETTER
        Unicode category constant Lu.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LOWERCASE_LETTER

        public static final byte LOWERCASE_LETTER
        Unicode category constant Ll.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • TITLECASE_LETTER

        public static final byte TITLECASE_LETTER
        Unicode category constant Lt.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MODIFIER_LETTER

        public static final byte MODIFIER_LETTER
        Unicode category constant Lm.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • OTHER_LETTER

        public static final byte OTHER_LETTER
        Unicode category constant Lo.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • NON_SPACING_MARK

        public static final byte NON_SPACING_MARK
        Unicode category constant Mn.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • ENCLOSING_MARK

        public static final byte ENCLOSING_MARK
        Unicode category constant Me.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • COMBINING_SPACING_MARK

        public static final byte COMBINING_SPACING_MARK
        Unicode category constant Mc.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER

        public static final byte DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER
        Unicode category constant Nd.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LETTER_NUMBER

        public static final byte LETTER_NUMBER
        Unicode category constant Nl.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • OTHER_NUMBER

        public static final byte OTHER_NUMBER
        Unicode category constant No.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SPACE_SEPARATOR

        public static final byte SPACE_SEPARATOR
        Unicode category constant Zs.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • LINE_SEPARATOR

        public static final byte LINE_SEPARATOR
        Unicode category constant Zl.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR

        public static final byte PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR
        Unicode category constant Zp.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • PRIVATE_USE

        public static final byte PRIVATE_USE
        Unicode category constant Co.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SURROGATE

        public static final byte SURROGATE
        Unicode category constant Cs.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DASH_PUNCTUATION

        public static final byte DASH_PUNCTUATION
        Unicode category constant Pd.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • START_PUNCTUATION

        public static final byte START_PUNCTUATION
        Unicode category constant Ps.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • END_PUNCTUATION

        public static final byte END_PUNCTUATION
        Unicode category constant Pe.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION

        public static final byte CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION
        Unicode category constant Pc.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • OTHER_PUNCTUATION

        public static final byte OTHER_PUNCTUATION
        Unicode category constant Po.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MATH_SYMBOL

        public static final byte MATH_SYMBOL
        Unicode category constant Sm.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • CURRENCY_SYMBOL

        public static final byte CURRENCY_SYMBOL
        Unicode category constant Sc.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MODIFIER_SYMBOL

        public static final byte MODIFIER_SYMBOL
        Unicode category constant Sk.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • OTHER_SYMBOL

        public static final byte OTHER_SYMBOL
        Unicode category constant So.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION

        public static final byte INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION
        Unicode category constant Pi.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION

        public static final byte FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION
        Unicode category constant Pf.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_UNDEFINED

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_UNDEFINED
        Unicode bidirectional constant.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_LEFT_TO_RIGHT

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_LEFT_TO_RIGHT
        Unicode bidirectional constant L.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_RIGHT_TO_LEFT

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_RIGHT_TO_LEFT
        Unicode bidirectional constant R.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_ARABIC

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_ARABIC
        Unicode bidirectional constant AL.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_EUROPEAN_NUMBER

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_EUROPEAN_NUMBER
        Unicode bidirectional constant EN.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_EUROPEAN_NUMBER_SEPARATOR

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_EUROPEAN_NUMBER_SEPARATOR
        Unicode bidirectional constant ES.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_EUROPEAN_NUMBER_TERMINATOR

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_EUROPEAN_NUMBER_TERMINATOR
        Unicode bidirectional constant ET.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_ARABIC_NUMBER

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_ARABIC_NUMBER
        Unicode bidirectional constant AN.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_COMMON_NUMBER_SEPARATOR

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_COMMON_NUMBER_SEPARATOR
        Unicode bidirectional constant CS.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_NONSPACING_MARK

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_NONSPACING_MARK
        Unicode bidirectional constant NSM.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_BOUNDARY_NEUTRAL

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_BOUNDARY_NEUTRAL
        Unicode bidirectional constant BN.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR
        Unicode bidirectional constant B.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_SEGMENT_SEPARATOR

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_SEGMENT_SEPARATOR
        Unicode bidirectional constant S.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_WHITESPACE

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_WHITESPACE
        Unicode bidirectional constant WS.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_OTHER_NEUTRALS

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_OTHER_NEUTRALS
        Unicode bidirectional constant ON.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_LEFT_TO_RIGHT_EMBEDDING

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_LEFT_TO_RIGHT_EMBEDDING
        Unicode bidirectional constant LRE.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_LEFT_TO_RIGHT_OVERRIDE

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_LEFT_TO_RIGHT_OVERRIDE
        Unicode bidirectional constant LRO.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_EMBEDDING

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_EMBEDDING
        Unicode bidirectional constant RLE.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_OVERRIDE

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_RIGHT_TO_LEFT_OVERRIDE
        Unicode bidirectional constant RLO.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • DIRECTIONALITY_POP_DIRECTIONAL_FORMAT

        public static final byte DIRECTIONALITY_POP_DIRECTIONAL_FORMAT
        Unicode bidirectional constant PDF.
        Since:
        1.4
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE

        public static final char MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE
        The minimum value of a high surrogate or leading surrogate unit in UTF-16 encoding, '?'.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE

        public static final char MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE
        The maximum value of a high surrogate or leading surrogate unit in UTF-16 encoding, '?'.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MIN_LOW_SURROGATE

        public static final char MIN_LOW_SURROGATE
        The minimum value of a low surrogate or trailing surrogate unit in UTF-16 encoding, '?'.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MAX_LOW_SURROGATE

        public static final char MAX_LOW_SURROGATE
        The maximum value of a low surrogate or trailing surrogate unit in UTF-16 encoding, '?'.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MIN_SURROGATE

        public static final char MIN_SURROGATE
        The minimum value of a surrogate unit in UTF-16 encoding, '?'.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MAX_SURROGATE

        public static final char MAX_SURROGATE
        The maximum value of a surrogate unit in UTF-16 encoding, '?'.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT

        public static final int MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT
        The minimum value of a supplementary code point, U+010000.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MIN_CODE_POINT

        public static final int MIN_CODE_POINT
        The minimum code point value, U+0000.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • MAX_CODE_POINT

        public static final int MAX_CODE_POINT
        The maximum code point value, U+10FFFF.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SIZE

        public static final int SIZE
        The number of bits required to represent a Character value unsigned form.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
    • Constructor Detail

      • Character

        public Character(char value)
        Constructs a new Character with the specified primitive char value.
        Parameters:
        value - the primitive char value to store in the new instance.
    • Method Detail

      • charValue

        public char charValue()
        Gets the primitive value of this character.
        Returns:
        this object's primitive value.
      • compareTo

        public int compareTo(Character c)
        Compares this object to the specified character object to determine their relative order.
        Specified by:
        compareTo in interface Comparable<Character>
        Parameters:
        c - the character object to compare this object to.
        Returns:
        0 if the value of this character and the value of c are equal; a positive value if the value of this character is greater than the value of c; a negative value if the value of this character is less than the value of c.
        Since:
        1.2
        See Also:
        Comparable
      • compare

        public static int compare(char lhs,
                  char rhs)
        Compares two char values.
        Returns:
        0 if lhs = rhs, less than 0 if lhs < rhs, and greater than 0 if lhs > rhs.
        Since:
        1.7
      • valueOf

        public static Character valueOf(char c)
        Returns a Character instance for the char value passed.

        If it is not necessary to get a new Character instance, it is recommended to use this method instead of the constructor, since it maintains a cache of instances which may result in better performance.

        Parameters:
        c - the char value for which to get a Character instance.
        Returns:
        the Character instance for c.
        Since:
        1.5
      • isValidCodePoint

        public static boolean isValidCodePoint(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether codePoint is a valid Unicode code point.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to test.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a valid Unicode code point; false otherwise.
        Since:
        1.5
      • isSupplementaryCodePoint

        public static boolean isSupplementaryCodePoint(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether codePoint is within the supplementary code point range.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to test.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is within the supplementary code point range; false otherwise.
        Since:
        1.5
      • isHighSurrogate

        public static boolean isHighSurrogate(char ch)
        Indicates whether ch is a high- (or leading-) surrogate code unit that is used for representing supplementary characters in UTF-16 encoding.
        Parameters:
        ch - the character to test.
        Returns:
        true if ch is a high-surrogate code unit; false otherwise.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        isLowSurrogate(char)
      • isLowSurrogate

        public static boolean isLowSurrogate(char ch)
        Indicates whether ch is a low- (or trailing-) surrogate code unit that is used for representing supplementary characters in UTF-16 encoding.
        Parameters:
        ch - the character to test.
        Returns:
        true if ch is a low-surrogate code unit; false otherwise.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        isHighSurrogate(char)
      • isSurrogate

        public static boolean isSurrogate(char ch)
        Tests whether the given character is a high or low surrogate.
        Since:
        1.7
      • isSurrogatePair

        public static boolean isSurrogatePair(char high,
                              char low)
        Indicates whether the specified character pair is a valid surrogate pair.
        Parameters:
        high - the high surrogate unit to test.
        low - the low surrogate unit to test.
        Returns:
        true if high is a high-surrogate code unit and low is a low-surrogate code unit; false otherwise.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        isHighSurrogate(char), isLowSurrogate(char)
      • charCount

        public static int charCount(int codePoint)
        Calculates the number of char values required to represent the specified Unicode code point. This method checks if the codePoint is greater than or equal to 0x10000, in which case 2 is returned, otherwise 1. To test if the code point is valid, use the isValidCodePoint(int) method.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point for which to calculate the number of required chars.
        Returns:
        2 if codePoint >= 0x10000; 1 otherwise.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        isValidCodePoint(int), isSupplementaryCodePoint(int)
      • toCodePoint

        public static int toCodePoint(char high,
                      char low)
        Converts a surrogate pair into a Unicode code point. This method assumes that the pair are valid surrogates. If the pair are not valid surrogates, then the result is indeterminate. The isSurrogatePair(char, char) method should be used prior to this method to validate the pair.
        Parameters:
        high - the high surrogate unit.
        low - the low surrogate unit.
        Returns:
        the Unicode code point corresponding to the surrogate unit pair.
        Since:
        1.5
        See Also:
        isSurrogatePair(char, char)
      • codePointAt

        public static int codePointAt(CharSequence seq,
                      int index)
        Returns the code point at index in the specified sequence of character units. If the unit at index is a high-surrogate unit, index + 1 is less than the length of the sequence and the unit at index + 1 is a low-surrogate unit, then the supplementary code point represented by the pair is returned; otherwise the char value at index is returned.
        Parameters:
        seq - the source sequence of char units.
        index - the position in seq from which to retrieve the code point.
        Returns:
        the Unicode code point or char value at index in seq.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the index is negative or greater than or equal to the length of seq.
        Since:
        1.5
      • codePointAt

        public static int codePointAt(char[] seq,
                      int index)
        Returns the code point at index in the specified array of character units. If the unit at index is a high-surrogate unit, index + 1 is less than the length of the array and the unit at index + 1 is a low-surrogate unit, then the supplementary code point represented by the pair is returned; otherwise the char value at index is returned.
        Parameters:
        seq - the source array of char units.
        index - the position in seq from which to retrieve the code point.
        Returns:
        the Unicode code point or char value at index in seq.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the index is negative or greater than or equal to the length of seq.
        Since:
        1.5
      • codePointAt

        public static int codePointAt(char[] seq,
                      int index,
                      int limit)
        Returns the code point at index in the specified array of character units, where index has to be less than limit. If the unit at index is a high-surrogate unit, index + 1 is less than limit and the unit at index + 1 is a low-surrogate unit, then the supplementary code point represented by the pair is returned; otherwise the char value at index is returned.
        Parameters:
        seq - the source array of char units.
        index - the position in seq from which to get the code point.
        limit - the index after the last unit in seq that can be used.
        Returns:
        the Unicode code point or char value at index in seq.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if index < 0, index >= limit, limit < 0 or if limit is greater than the length of seq.
        Since:
        1.5
      • codePointBefore

        public static int codePointBefore(CharSequence seq,
                          int index)
        Returns the code point that precedes index in the specified sequence of character units. If the unit at index - 1 is a low-surrogate unit, index - 2 is not negative and the unit at index - 2 is a high-surrogate unit, then the supplementary code point represented by the pair is returned; otherwise the char value at index - 1 is returned.
        Parameters:
        seq - the source sequence of char units.
        index - the position in seq following the code point that should be returned.
        Returns:
        the Unicode code point or char value before index in seq.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the index is less than 1 or greater than the length of seq.
        Since:
        1.5
      • codePointBefore

        public static int codePointBefore(char[] seq,
                          int index)
        Returns the code point that precedes index in the specified array of character units. If the unit at index - 1 is a low-surrogate unit, index - 2 is not negative and the unit at index - 2 is a high-surrogate unit, then the supplementary code point represented by the pair is returned; otherwise the char value at index - 1 is returned.
        Parameters:
        seq - the source array of char units.
        index - the position in seq following the code point that should be returned.
        Returns:
        the Unicode code point or char value before index in seq.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the index is less than 1 or greater than the length of seq.
        Since:
        1.5
      • codePointBefore

        public static int codePointBefore(char[] seq,
                          int index,
                          int start)
        Returns the code point that precedes the index in the specified array of character units and is not less than start. If the unit at index - 1 is a low-surrogate unit, index - 2 is not less than start and the unit at index - 2 is a high-surrogate unit, then the supplementary code point represented by the pair is returned; otherwise the char value at index - 1 is returned.
        Parameters:
        seq - the source array of char units.
        index - the position in seq following the code point that should be returned.
        start - the index of the first element in seq.
        Returns:
        the Unicode code point or char value before index in seq.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if the index <= start, start < 0, index is greater than the length of seq, or if start is equal or greater than the length of seq.
        Since:
        1.5
      • toChars

        public static int toChars(int codePoint,
                  char[] dst,
                  int dstIndex)
        Converts the specified Unicode code point into a UTF-16 encoded sequence and copies the value(s) into the char array dst, starting at index dstIndex.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the Unicode code point to encode.
        dst - the destination array to copy the encoded value into.
        dstIndex - the index in dst from where to start copying.
        Returns:
        the number of char value units copied into dst.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if codePoint is not a valid code point.
        NullPointerException - if dst is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if dstIndex is negative, greater than or equal to dst.length or equals dst.length - 1 when codePoint is a supplementary code point.
        Since:
        1.5
      • toChars

        public static char[] toChars(int codePoint)
        Converts the specified Unicode code point into a UTF-16 encoded sequence and returns it as a char array.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the Unicode code point to encode.
        Returns:
        the UTF-16 encoded char sequence. If codePoint is a supplementary code point, then the returned array contains two characters, otherwise it contains just one character.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if codePoint is not a valid code point.
        Since:
        1.5
      • codePointCount

        public static int codePointCount(CharSequence seq,
                         int beginIndex,
                         int endIndex)
        Counts the number of Unicode code points in the subsequence of the specified character sequence, as delineated by beginIndex and endIndex. Any surrogate values with missing pair values will be counted as one code point.
        Parameters:
        seq - the CharSequence to look through.
        beginIndex - the inclusive index to begin counting at.
        endIndex - the exclusive index to stop counting at.
        Returns:
        the number of Unicode code points.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if beginIndex < 0, beginIndex > endIndex or if endIndex is greater than the length of seq.
        Since:
        1.5
      • codePointCount

        public static int codePointCount(char[] seq,
                         int offset,
                         int count)
        Counts the number of Unicode code points in the subsequence of the specified char array, as delineated by offset and count. Any surrogate values with missing pair values will be counted as one code point.
        Parameters:
        seq - the char array to look through
        offset - the inclusive index to begin counting at.
        count - the number of char values to look through in seq.
        Returns:
        the number of Unicode code points.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if offset < 0, count < 0 or if offset + count is greater than the length of seq.
        Since:
        1.5
      • offsetByCodePoints

        public static int offsetByCodePoints(CharSequence seq,
                             int index,
                             int codePointOffset)
        Determines the index in the specified character sequence that is offset codePointOffset code points from index.
        Parameters:
        seq - the character sequence to find the index in.
        index - the start index in seq.
        codePointOffset - the number of code points to look backwards or forwards; may be a negative or positive value.
        Returns:
        the index in seq that is codePointOffset code points away from index.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if index < 0, index is greater than the length of seq, or if there are not enough values in seq to skip codePointOffset code points forwards or backwards (if codePointOffset is negative) from index.
        Since:
        1.5
      • offsetByCodePoints

        public static int offsetByCodePoints(char[] seq,
                             int start,
                             int count,
                             int index,
                             int codePointOffset)
        Determines the index in a subsequence of the specified character array that is offset codePointOffset code points from index. The subsequence is delineated by start and count.
        Parameters:
        seq - the character array to find the index in.
        start - the inclusive index that marks the beginning of the subsequence.
        count - the number of char values to include within the subsequence.
        index - the start index in the subsequence of the char array.
        codePointOffset - the number of code points to look backwards or forwards; may be a negative or positive value.
        Returns:
        the index in seq that is codePointOffset code points away from index.
        Throws:
        NullPointerException - if seq is null.
        IndexOutOfBoundsException - if start < 0, count < 0, index < start, index > start + count, start + count is greater than the length of seq, or if there are not enough values in seq to skip codePointOffset code points forward or backward (if codePointOffset is negative) from index.
        Since:
        1.5
      • digit

        public static int digit(char c,
                int radix)
        Convenience method to determine the value of the specified character c in the supplied radix. The value of radix must be between MIN_RADIX and MAX_RADIX.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to determine the value of.
        radix - the radix.
        Returns:
        the value of c in radix if radix lies between MIN_RADIX and MAX_RADIX; -1 otherwise.
      • digit

        public static int digit(int codePoint,
                int radix)
        Convenience method to determine the value of the character codePoint in the supplied radix. The value of radix must be between MIN_RADIX and MAX_RADIX.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the character, including supplementary characters.
        radix - the radix.
        Returns:
        if radix lies between MIN_RADIX and MAX_RADIX then the value of the character in the radix; -1 otherwise.
      • equals

        public boolean equals(Object object)
        Compares this object with the specified object and indicates if they are equal. In order to be equal, object must be an instance of Character and have the same char value as this object.
        Overrides:
        equals in class Object
        Parameters:
        object - the object to compare this double with.
        Returns:
        true if the specified object is equal to this Character; false otherwise.
        See Also:
        Object.hashCode()
      • forDigit

        public static char forDigit(int digit,
                    int radix)
        Returns the character which represents the specified digit in the specified radix. The radix must be between MIN_RADIX and MAX_RADIX inclusive; digit must not be negative and smaller than radix. If any of these conditions does not hold, 0 is returned.
        Parameters:
        digit - the integer value.
        radix - the radix.
        Returns:
        the character which represents the digit in the radix.
      • getName

        public static String getName(int codePoint)
        Returns the name of the given code point, or null if the code point is unassigned.

        As a fallback mechanism this method returns strings consisting of the Unicode block name (with underscores replaced by spaces), a single space, and the uppercase hex value of the code point, using as few digits as necessary.

        Examples:

        • Character.getName(0) returns "NULL".
        • Character.getName('e') returns "LATIN SMALL LETTER E".
        • Character.getName('?') returns "ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT SIX".
        • Character.getName(0xe000) returns "PRIVATE USE AREA E000".
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if codePoint is not a valid code point.
        Since:
        1.7
      • getNumericValue

        public static int getNumericValue(char c)
        Returns the numeric value of the specified Unicode character. See getNumericValue(int).
        Parameters:
        c - the character
        Returns:
        a non-negative numeric integer value if a numeric value for c exists, -1 if there is no numeric value for c, -2 if the numeric value can not be represented as an integer.
      • getNumericValue

        public static int getNumericValue(int codePoint)
        Gets the numeric value of the specified Unicode code point. For example, the code point '?' stands for the Roman number XII, which has the numeric value 12.

        There are two points of divergence between this method and the Unicode specification. This method treats the letters a-z (in both upper and lower cases, and their full-width variants) as numbers from 10 to 35. The Unicode specification also supports the idea of code points with non-integer numeric values; this method does not (except to the extent of returning -2 for such code points).

        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point
        Returns:
        a non-negative numeric integer value if a numeric value for codePoint exists, -1 if there is no numeric value for codePoint, -2 if the numeric value can not be represented with an integer.
      • getType

        public static int getType(char c)
        Gets the general Unicode category of the specified character.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to get the category of.
        Returns:
        the Unicode category of c.
      • getType

        public static int getType(int codePoint)
        Gets the general Unicode category of the specified code point.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the Unicode code point to get the category of.
        Returns:
        the Unicode category of codePoint.
      • getDirectionality

        public static byte getDirectionality(char c)
        Gets the Unicode directionality of the specified character.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to get the directionality of.
        Returns:
        the Unicode directionality of c.
      • getDirectionality

        public static byte getDirectionality(int codePoint)
        Gets the Unicode directionality of the specified character.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the Unicode code point to get the directionality of.
        Returns:
        the Unicode directionality of codePoint.
      • isMirrored

        public static boolean isMirrored(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is mirrored.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is mirrored; false otherwise.
      • isMirrored

        public static boolean isMirrored(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is mirrored.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is mirrored, false otherwise.
      • hashCode

        public int hashCode()
        Description copied from class: Object
        Returns an integer hash code for this object. By contract, any two objects for which Object.equals(java.lang.Object) returns true must return the same hash code value. This means that subclasses of Object usually override both methods or neither method.

        Note that hash values must not change over time unless information used in equals comparisons also changes.

        See Writing a correct hashCode method if you intend implementing your own hashCode method.

        Overrides:
        hashCode in class Object
        Returns:
        this object's hash code.
        See Also:
        Object.equals(java.lang.Object)
      • highSurrogate

        public static char highSurrogate(int codePoint)
        Returns the high surrogate for the given code point. The result is meaningless if the given code point is not a supplementary character.
        Since:
        1.7
      • lowSurrogate

        public static char lowSurrogate(int codePoint)
        Returns the low surrogate for the given code point. The result is meaningless if the given code point is not a supplementary character.
        Since:
        1.7
      • isBmpCodePoint

        public static boolean isBmpCodePoint(int codePoint)
        Tests whether the given code point is in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). Such code points can be represented by a single char.
        Since:
        1.7
      • isDefined

        public static boolean isDefined(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is defined in the Unicode specification.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if the general Unicode category of the character is not UNASSIGNED; false otherwise.
      • isDefined

        public static boolean isDefined(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is defined in the Unicode specification.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if the general Unicode category of the code point is not UNASSIGNED; false otherwise.
      • isDigit

        public static boolean isDigit(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a digit.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a digit; false otherwise.
      • isDigit

        public static boolean isDigit(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a digit.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a digit; false otherwise.
      • isIdentifierIgnorable

        public static boolean isIdentifierIgnorable(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is ignorable in a Java or Unicode identifier.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is ignorable; false otherwise.
      • isIdentifierIgnorable

        public static boolean isIdentifierIgnorable(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is ignorable in a Java or Unicode identifier.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is ignorable; false otherwise.
      • isISOControl

        public static boolean isISOControl(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is an ISO control character.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is an ISO control character; false otherwise.
      • isISOControl

        public static boolean isISOControl(int c)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is an ISO control character.
        Parameters:
        c - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is an ISO control character; false otherwise.
      • isJavaIdentifierPart

        public static boolean isJavaIdentifierPart(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a valid part of a Java identifier other than the first character.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is valid as part of a Java identifier; false otherwise.
      • isJavaIdentifierPart

        public static boolean isJavaIdentifierPart(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a valid part of a Java identifier other than the first character.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is valid as part of a Java identifier; false otherwise.
      • isJavaIdentifierStart

        public static boolean isJavaIdentifierStart(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a valid first character for a Java identifier.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a valid first character of a Java identifier; false otherwise.
      • isJavaIdentifierStart

        public static boolean isJavaIdentifierStart(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a valid first character for a Java identifier.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a valid start of a Java identifier; false otherwise.
      • isJavaLetter

        @Deprecated
        public static boolean isJavaLetter(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a Java letter.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a Java letter; false otherwise.
      • isJavaLetterOrDigit

        @Deprecated
        public static boolean isJavaLetterOrDigit(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a Java letter or digit character.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a Java letter or digit; false otherwise.
      • isLetter

        public static boolean isLetter(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a letter.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a letter; false otherwise.
      • isLetter

        public static boolean isLetter(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a letter.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a letter; false otherwise.
      • isLetterOrDigit

        public static boolean isLetterOrDigit(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a letter or a digit.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a letter or a digit; false otherwise.
      • isLetterOrDigit

        public static boolean isLetterOrDigit(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a letter or a digit.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a letter or a digit; false otherwise.
      • isLowerCase

        public static boolean isLowerCase(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a lower case letter.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a lower case letter; false otherwise.
      • isLowerCase

        public static boolean isLowerCase(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a lower case letter.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a lower case letter; false otherwise.
      • isSpace

        @Deprecated
        public static boolean isSpace(char c)
        Deprecated. Use isWhitespace(char)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a Java space.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a Java space; false otherwise.
      • isSpaceChar

        public static boolean isSpaceChar(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a Unicode space character. That is, if it is a member of one of the Unicode categories Space Separator, Line Separator, or Paragraph Separator.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a Unicode space character, false otherwise.
      • isSpaceChar

        public static boolean isSpaceChar(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a Unicode space character. That is, if it is a member of one of the Unicode categories Space Separator, Line Separator, or Paragraph Separator.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a Unicode space character, false otherwise.
      • isTitleCase

        public static boolean isTitleCase(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a titlecase character.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a titlecase character, false otherwise.
      • isTitleCase

        public static boolean isTitleCase(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a titlecase character.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a titlecase character, false otherwise.
      • isUnicodeIdentifierPart

        public static boolean isUnicodeIdentifierPart(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is valid as part of a Unicode identifier other than the first character.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is valid as part of a Unicode identifier; false otherwise.
      • isUnicodeIdentifierPart

        public static boolean isUnicodeIdentifierPart(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is valid as part of a Unicode identifier other than the first character.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is valid as part of a Unicode identifier; false otherwise.
      • isUnicodeIdentifierStart

        public static boolean isUnicodeIdentifierStart(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a valid initial character for a Unicode identifier.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a valid first character for a Unicode identifier; false otherwise.
      • isUnicodeIdentifierStart

        public static boolean isUnicodeIdentifierStart(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a valid initial character for a Unicode identifier.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a valid first character for a Unicode identifier; false otherwise.
      • isUpperCase

        public static boolean isUpperCase(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is an upper case letter.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if c is a upper case letter; false otherwise.
      • isUpperCase

        public static boolean isUpperCase(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is an upper case letter.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if codePoint is a upper case letter; false otherwise.
      • isWhitespace

        public static boolean isWhitespace(char c)
        Indicates whether the specified character is a whitespace character in Java.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to check.
        Returns:
        true if the supplied c is a whitespace character in Java; false otherwise.
      • isWhitespace

        public static boolean isWhitespace(int codePoint)
        Indicates whether the specified code point is a whitespace character in Java.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        true if the supplied c is a whitespace character in Java; false otherwise.
      • reverseBytes

        public static char reverseBytes(char c)
        Reverses the order of the first and second byte in the specified character.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to reverse.
        Returns:
        the character with reordered bytes.
      • toLowerCase

        public static char toLowerCase(char c)
        Returns the lower case equivalent for the specified character if the character is an upper case letter. Otherwise, the specified character is returned unchanged.
        Parameters:
        c - the character
        Returns:
        if c is an upper case character then its lower case counterpart, otherwise just c.
      • toLowerCase

        public static int toLowerCase(int codePoint)
        Returns the lower case equivalent for the specified code point if it is an upper case letter. Otherwise, the specified code point is returned unchanged.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to check.
        Returns:
        if codePoint is an upper case character then its lower case counterpart, otherwise just codePoint.
      • toString

        public String toString()
        Description copied from class: Object
        Returns a string containing a concise, human-readable description of this object. Subclasses are encouraged to override this method and provide an implementation that takes into account the object's type and data. The default implementation is equivalent to the following expression:
           getClass().getName() + '@' + Integer.toHexString(hashCode())

        See Writing a useful toString method if you intend implementing your own toString method.

        Overrides:
        toString in class Object
        Returns:
        a printable representation of this object.
      • toString

        public static String toString(char value)
        Converts the specified character to its string representation.
        Parameters:
        value - the character to convert.
        Returns:
        the character converted to a string.
      • toTitleCase

        public static char toTitleCase(char c)
        Returns the title case equivalent for the specified character if it exists. Otherwise, the specified character is returned unchanged.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to convert.
        Returns:
        the title case equivalent of c if it exists, otherwise c.
      • toTitleCase

        public static int toTitleCase(int codePoint)
        Returns the title case equivalent for the specified code point if it exists. Otherwise, the specified code point is returned unchanged.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to convert.
        Returns:
        the title case equivalent of codePoint if it exists, otherwise codePoint.
      • toUpperCase

        public static char toUpperCase(char c)
        Returns the upper case equivalent for the specified character if the character is a lower case letter. Otherwise, the specified character is returned unchanged.
        Parameters:
        c - the character to convert.
        Returns:
        if c is a lower case character then its upper case counterpart, otherwise just c.
      • toUpperCase

        public static int toUpperCase(int codePoint)
        Returns the upper case equivalent for the specified code point if the code point is a lower case letter. Otherwise, the specified code point is returned unchanged.
        Parameters:
        codePoint - the code point to convert.
        Returns:
        if codePoint is a lower case character then its upper case counterpart, otherwise just codePoint.


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