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Statement


java.sql

Interface Statement

  • All Superinterfaces:
    AutoCloseable, Wrapper
    All Known Subinterfaces:
    CallableStatement, PreparedStatement


    public interface Statement
    extends Wrapper, AutoCloseable
    Interface used for executing static SQL statements to retrieve query results. The resulting table rows are returned as ResultSets. For any given Statement object, only one ResultSet can be opened at one time. A call to any of the execution methods of Statement will cause any previously created ResultSet object for that Statement to be closed implicitly.

    To have multiple ResultSet objects opened concurrently, multiple Statement objects must be created and then executed.

    To obtain such an executable statement one needs to invoke Connection#createStatement.

    See Also:
    ResultSet, Connection.createStatement()
    • Field Summary

      Fields
      Modifier and Type Field and Description
      static int CLOSE_ALL_RESULTS
      Passing this constant to getMoreResults() implies that all ResultSet objects previously kept open should be closed.
      static int CLOSE_CURRENT_RESULT
      Passing this constant to getMoreResults() implies that the current ResultSet object should be closed.
      static int EXECUTE_FAILED
      Indicates that an error was encountered during execution of a batch statement.
      static int KEEP_CURRENT_RESULT
      Passing this constant to getMoreResults implies that the current ResultSet object should not be closed.
      static int NO_GENERATED_KEYS
      Indicates that generated keys should not be accessible for retrieval.
      static int RETURN_GENERATED_KEYS
      Indicates that generated keys should be accessible for retrieval.
      static int SUCCESS_NO_INFO
      Indicates that a batch statement was executed with a successful result, but a count of the number of rows it affected is unavailable.
    • Method Summary

      Methods
      Modifier and Type Method and Description
      void addBatch(String sql)
      Adds a specified SQL command to the list of commands for this Statement.
      void cancel()
      Cancels this statement's execution if both the database and the JDBC driver support aborting an SQL statement in flight.
      void clearBatch()
      Clears the current list of SQL commands for this statement.
      void clearWarnings()
      Clears all SQLWarnings from this statement.
      void close()
      Releases this statement's database and JDBC driver resources.
      boolean execute(String sql)
      Executes a supplied SQL statement.
      boolean execute(String sql, int autoGeneratedKeys)
      Executes a supplied SQL statement.
      boolean execute(String sql, int[] columnIndexes)
      Executes the supplied SQL statement.
      boolean execute(String sql, String[] columnNames)
      Executes the supplied SQL statement.
      int[] executeBatch()
      Submits a batch of SQL commands to the database.
      ResultSet executeQuery(String sql)
      Executes a supplied SQL statement.
      int executeUpdate(String sql)
      Executes the supplied SQL statement.
      int executeUpdate(String sql, int autoGeneratedKeys)
      Executes the supplied SQL statement.
      int executeUpdate(String sql, int[] columnIndexes)
      Executes the supplied SQL statement.
      int executeUpdate(String sql, String[] columnNames)
      Executes the supplied SQL statement.
      Connection getConnection()
      Gets the Connection object which created this statement.
      int getFetchDirection()
      Gets the default direction for fetching rows for ResultSets generated from this statement.
      int getFetchSize()
      Gets the default number of rows for a fetch for the ResultSet objects returned from this statement.
      ResultSet getGeneratedKeys()
      Returns auto generated keys created by executing this statement.
      int getMaxFieldSize()
      Gets the maximum number of bytes which can be returned as values from character and binary type columns in a ResultSet derived from this statement.
      int getMaxRows()
      Gets the maximum number of rows that a ResultSet can contain when produced from this statement.
      boolean getMoreResults()
      Moves to this statement's next result.
      boolean getMoreResults(int current)
      Moves to this statement's next result.
      int getQueryTimeout()
      Gets the timeout value for the statement's execution time.
      ResultSet getResultSet()
      Gets the current result.
      int getResultSetConcurrency()
      Gets the concurrency setting for ResultSet objects generated by this statement.
      int getResultSetHoldability()
      Gets the cursor hold setting for ResultSet objects generated by this statement.
      int getResultSetType()
      Gets the ResultSet type setting for ResultSets derived from this statement.
      int getUpdateCount()
      Gets an update count for the current result if it is not a ResultSet.
      SQLWarning getWarnings()
      Retrieves the first SQLWarning reported by calls on this statement.
      boolean isClosed()
      Returns true if this statement has been closed, false otherwise.
      boolean isPoolable()
      Returns true if this statement is poolable, false otherwise.
      void setCursorName(String name)
      Sets the SQL cursor name.
      void setEscapeProcessing(boolean enable)
      Sets Escape Processing mode.
      void setFetchDirection(int direction)
      Sets the fetch direction - a hint to the JDBC driver about the direction of processing of rows in ResultSets created by this statement.
      void setFetchSize(int rows)
      Sets the fetch size.
      void setMaxFieldSize(int max)
      Sets the maximum number of bytes for ResultSet columns that contain character or binary values.
      void setMaxRows(int max)
      Sets the maximum number of rows that any ResultSet can contain.
      void setPoolable(boolean poolable)
      Hints whether this statement should be pooled.
      void setQueryTimeout(int seconds)
      Sets the timeout, in seconds, for queries - how long the driver will allow for completion of a statement execution.
    • Field Detail

      • CLOSE_ALL_RESULTS

        static final int CLOSE_ALL_RESULTS
        Passing this constant to getMoreResults() implies that all ResultSet objects previously kept open should be closed.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • CLOSE_CURRENT_RESULT

        static final int CLOSE_CURRENT_RESULT
        Passing this constant to getMoreResults() implies that the current ResultSet object should be closed.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • EXECUTE_FAILED

        static final int EXECUTE_FAILED
        Indicates that an error was encountered during execution of a batch statement.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • KEEP_CURRENT_RESULT

        static final int KEEP_CURRENT_RESULT
        Passing this constant to getMoreResults implies that the current ResultSet object should not be closed.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • NO_GENERATED_KEYS

        static final int NO_GENERATED_KEYS
        Indicates that generated keys should not be accessible for retrieval.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • RETURN_GENERATED_KEYS

        static final int RETURN_GENERATED_KEYS
        Indicates that generated keys should be accessible for retrieval.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • SUCCESS_NO_INFO

        static final int SUCCESS_NO_INFO
        Indicates that a batch statement was executed with a successful result, but a count of the number of rows it affected is unavailable.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
    • Method Detail

      • addBatch

        void addBatch(String sql)
                      throws SQLException
        Adds a specified SQL command to the list of commands for this Statement.

        The list of commands is executed by invoking the executeBatch method.

        Parameters:
        sql - the SQL command as a String. Typically an INSERT or UPDATE statement.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or the database does not support batch updates.
      • cancel

        void cancel()
                    throws SQLException
        Cancels this statement's execution if both the database and the JDBC driver support aborting an SQL statement in flight. This method can be used by one thread to stop a statement that is executed on another thread.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • clearBatch

        void clearBatch()
                        throws SQLException
        Clears the current list of SQL commands for this statement.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or the database does not support batch updates.
      • clearWarnings

        void clearWarnings()
                           throws SQLException
        Clears all SQLWarnings from this statement.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • close

        void close()
                   throws SQLException
        Releases this statement's database and JDBC driver resources.

        Using this method to release these resources as soon as possible is strongly recommended.

        One should not rely on the resources being automatically released when finalized during garbage collection. Doing so can result in unpredictable behavior for the application.

        Specified by:
        close in interface AutoCloseable
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • execute

        boolean execute(String sql)
                        throws SQLException
        Executes a supplied SQL statement. This may return multiple ResultSets.

        Use the getResultSet or getUpdateCount methods to get the first result and getMoreResults to get any subsequent results.

        Parameters:
        sql - the SQL statement to execute
        Returns:
        true if the first result is a ResultSet, false if the first result is an update count or if there is no result.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • execute

        boolean execute(String sql,
                      int autoGeneratedKeys)
                        throws SQLException
        Executes a supplied SQL statement. This may return multiple ResultSets. This method allows control of whether auto-generated Keys should be made available for retrieval, if the SQL statement is an INSERT statement.

        Use the getResultSet or getUpdateCount methods to get the first result and getMoreResults to get any subsequent results.

        Parameters:
        sql - the SQL statement to execute.
        autoGeneratedKeys - a flag indicating whether to make auto generated keys available for retrieval. This parameter must be one of Statement.NO_GENERATED_KEYS or Statement.RETURN_GENERATED_KEYS.
        Returns:
        true if results exists and the first result is a ResultSet, false if the first result is an update count or if there is no result.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • execute

        boolean execute(String sql,
                      int[] columnIndexes)
                        throws SQLException
        Executes the supplied SQL statement. This may return multiple ResultSets. This method allows retrieval of auto generated keys specified by the supplied array of column indexes, if the SQL statement is an INSERT statement.

        Use the getResultSet or getUpdateCount methods to get the first result and getMoreResults to get any subsequent results.

        Parameters:
        sql - the SQL statement to execute.
        columnIndexes - an array of indexes of the columns in the inserted row which should be made available for retrieval via the getGeneratedKeys method.
        Returns:
        true if the first result is a ResultSet, false if the first result is an update count or if there is no result.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • execute

        boolean execute(String sql,
                      String[] columnNames)
                        throws SQLException
        Executes the supplied SQL statement. This may return multiple ResultSets. This method allows retrieval of auto generated keys specified by the supplied array of column indexes, if the SQL statement is an INSERT statement.

        Use the getResultSet or getUpdateCount methods to get the first result and getMoreResults to get any subsequent results.

        Parameters:
        sql - the SQL statement to execute.
        columnNames - an array of column names in the inserted row which should be made available for retrieval via the getGeneratedKeys method.
        Returns:
        true if the first result is a ResultSet, false if the first result is an update count or if there is no result
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • executeBatch

        int[] executeBatch()
                           throws SQLException
        Submits a batch of SQL commands to the database. Returns an array of update counts, if all the commands execute successfully.

        If one of the commands in the batch fails, this method can throw a BatchUpdateException and the JDBC driver may or may not process the remaining commands. The JDBC driver must behave consistently with the underlying database, following the "all or nothing" principle. If the driver continues processing, the array of results returned contains the same number of elements as there are commands in the batch, with a minimum of one of the elements having the EXECUTE_FAILED value.

        Returns:
        an array of update counts, with one entry for each command in the batch. The elements are ordered according to the order in which the commands were added to the batch.

        1. If the value of an element is ≥ 0, the corresponding command completed successfully and the value is the update count (the number of rows in the database affected by the command) for that command.
        2. If the value is SUCCESS_NO_INFO, the command completed successfully but the number of rows affected is unknown.
        3. If the value is EXECUTE_FAILED, the command failed.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • executeQuery

        ResultSet executeQuery(String sql)
                               throws SQLException
        Executes a supplied SQL statement. Returns a single ResultSet.
        Parameters:
        sql - an SQL statement to execute. Typically a SELECT statement
        Returns:
        a ResultSet containing the data produced by the SQL statement. Never null.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or if the statement produces anything other than a single ResultSet.
      • executeUpdate

        int executeUpdate(String sql)
                          throws SQLException
        Executes the supplied SQL statement. The statement may be an INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement or a statement which returns nothing.
        Parameters:
        sql - an SQL statement to execute - an SQL INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE or a statement which returns nothing
        Returns:
        the count of updated rows, or 0 for a statement that returns nothing.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or if the statement produces a ResultSet.
      • executeUpdate

        int executeUpdate(String sql,
                        int autoGeneratedKeys)
                          throws SQLException
        Executes the supplied SQL statement. This method allows control of whether auto-generated Keys should be made available for retrieval.
        Parameters:
        sql - an SQL statement to execute - an SQL INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE or a statement which does not return anything.
        autoGeneratedKeys - a flag that indicates whether to allow retrieval of auto generated keys. Parameter must be one of Statement.RETURN_GENERATED_KEYS or Statement.NO_GENERATED_KEYS
        Returns:
        the number of updated rows, or 0 if the statement returns nothing.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or if the statement produces a ResultSet.
      • executeUpdate

        int executeUpdate(String sql,
                        int[] columnIndexes)
                          throws SQLException
        Executes the supplied SQL statement. This method allows retrieval of auto generated keys specified by the supplied array of column indexes.
        Parameters:
        sql - an SQL statement to execute - an SQL INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE or a statement which returns nothing
        columnIndexes - an array of indexes of the columns in the inserted row which should be made available for retrieval via the getGeneratedKeys method.
        Returns:
        the count of updated rows, or 0 for a statement that returns nothing.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or if the statement produces a ResultSet.
      • executeUpdate

        int executeUpdate(String sql,
                        String[] columnNames)
                          throws SQLException
        Executes the supplied SQL statement. This method allows retrieval of auto generated keys specified by the supplied array of column names.
        Parameters:
        sql - an SQL statement to execute - an SQL INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE or a statement which returns nothing
        columnNames - an array of column names in the inserted row which should be made available for retrieval via the getGeneratedKeys method.
        Returns:
        the count of updated rows, or 0 for a statement that returns nothing.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or if the statement produces a ResultSet.
      • getConnection

        Connection getConnection()
                                 throws SQLException
        Gets the Connection object which created this statement.
        Returns:
        the Connection through which this statement is transmitted to the database.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getFetchDirection

        int getFetchDirection()
                              throws SQLException
        Gets the default direction for fetching rows for ResultSets generated from this statement.
        Returns:
        the default fetch direction, one of:
        • ResultSet.FETCH_FORWARD
        • ResultSet.FETCH_REVERSE
        • ResultSet.FETCH_UNKNOWN
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getFetchSize

        int getFetchSize()
                         throws SQLException
        Gets the default number of rows for a fetch for the ResultSet objects returned from this statement.
        Returns:
        the default fetch size for ResultSets produced by this statement.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getGeneratedKeys

        ResultSet getGeneratedKeys()
                                   throws SQLException
        Returns auto generated keys created by executing this statement.
        Returns:
        a ResultSet containing the auto generated keys - empty if no keys are generated by this statement.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getMaxFieldSize

        int getMaxFieldSize()
                            throws SQLException
        Gets the maximum number of bytes which can be returned as values from character and binary type columns in a ResultSet derived from this statement. This limit applies to BINARY, VARBINARY, LONGVARBINARY, CHAR, VARCHAR, and LONGVARCHAR types. Any data exceeding the maximum size is abandoned without announcement.
        Returns:
        the current size limit, where 0 means that there is no limit.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getMaxRows

        int getMaxRows()
                       throws SQLException
        Gets the maximum number of rows that a ResultSet can contain when produced from this statement. If the limit is exceeded, the excess rows are discarded silently.
        Returns:
        the current row limit, where 0 means that there is no limit.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getMoreResults

        boolean getMoreResults()
                               throws SQLException
        Moves to this statement's next result. Returns true if it is a ResultSet. Any current ResultSet objects previously obtained with getResultSet() are closed implicitly.
        Returns:
        true if the next result is a ResultSet, false if the next result is not a ResultSet or if there are no more results. Note that if there is no more data, this method will return false and getUpdateCount will return -1.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getMoreResults

        boolean getMoreResults(int current)
                               throws SQLException
        Moves to this statement's next result. Returns true if the next result is a ResultSet. Any current ResultSet objects previously obtained with getResultSet() are handled as indicated by a supplied Flag parameter.
        Parameters:
        current - a flag indicating what to do with existing ResultSets. This parameter must be one of Statement.CLOSE_ALL_RESULTS, Statement.CLOSE_CURRENT_RESULT or Statement.KEEP_CURRENT_RESULT.
        Returns:
        true if the next result exists and is a ResultSet , false if the next result is not a ResultSet or if there are no more results. Note that if there is no more data, this method will return false and getUpdateCount will return -1.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getQueryTimeout

        int getQueryTimeout()
                            throws SQLException
        Gets the timeout value for the statement's execution time. The JDBC driver will wait up to this value for the execution to complete - after the limit is exceeded an SQL Exception is thrown.
        Returns:
        the current query timeout value, where 0 indicates that there is no current timeout.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getResultSet

        ResultSet getResultSet()
                               throws SQLException
        Gets the current result. Should only be called once per result.
        Returns:
        the ResultSet for the current result. null if the result is an update count or if there are no more results.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getResultSetConcurrency

        int getResultSetConcurrency()
                                    throws SQLException
        Gets the concurrency setting for ResultSet objects generated by this statement.
        Returns:
        ResultSet.CONCUR_READ_ONLY or ResultSet.CONCUR_UPDATABLE.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getResultSetHoldability

        int getResultSetHoldability()
                                    throws SQLException
        Gets the cursor hold setting for ResultSet objects generated by this statement.
        Returns:
        ResultSet.HOLD_CURSORS_OVER_COMMIT or ResultSet.CLOSE_CURSORS_AT_COMMIT
        Throws:
        SQLException - if there is an error while accessing the database.
      • getResultSetType

        int getResultSetType()
                             throws SQLException
        Gets the ResultSet type setting for ResultSets derived from this statement.
        Returns:
        ResultSet.TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY for a ResultSet where the cursor can only move forwards, ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE for a ResultSet which is scrollable but is not sensitive to changes made by others, ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE for a ResultSet which is scrollable but is sensitive to changes made by others.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if there is an error accessing the database.
      • getUpdateCount

        int getUpdateCount()
                           throws SQLException
        Gets an update count for the current result if it is not a ResultSet.
        Returns:
        the current result as an update count. -1 if the current result is a ResultSet or if there are no more results.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • getWarnings

        SQLWarning getWarnings()
                               throws SQLException
        Retrieves the first SQLWarning reported by calls on this statement. If there are multiple warnings, subsequent warnings are chained to the first one. The chain of warnings is cleared each time the statement is executed.

        Warnings associated with reads from the ResultSet returned from executing the statement will be attached to the ResultSet, not the statement object.

        Returns:
        an SQLWarning, null if there are no warnings
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • setCursorName

        void setCursorName(String name)
                           throws SQLException
        Sets the SQL cursor name. This name is used by subsequent statement execute methods.

        Cursor names must be unique within one Connection.

        With the cursor name set, it can then be used in SQL positioned update or delete statements to determine the current row in a ResultSet generated from this statement. The positioned update or delete must be done with a different statement than this one.

        Parameters:
        name - the Cursor name as a string,
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • setEscapeProcessing

        void setEscapeProcessing(boolean enable)
                                 throws SQLException
        Sets Escape Processing mode.

        If Escape Processing is on, the JDBC driver will do escape substitution on an SQL statement before sending it for execution. This does not apply to PreparedStatements since they are processed when created, before this method can be called.

        Parameters:
        enable - true to set escape processing mode on, false to turn it off.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database.
      • setFetchDirection

        void setFetchDirection(int direction)
                               throws SQLException
        Sets the fetch direction - a hint to the JDBC driver about the direction of processing of rows in ResultSets created by this statement. The default fetch direction is FETCH_FORWARD.
        Parameters:
        direction - which fetch direction to use. This parameter should be one of
        • ResultSet.FETCH_UNKNOWN
        • ResultSet.FETCH_FORWARD
        • ResultSet.FETCH_REVERSE
        Throws:
        SQLException - if there is an error while accessing the database or if the fetch direction is unrecognized.
      • setFetchSize

        void setFetchSize(int rows)
                          throws SQLException
        Sets the fetch size. This is a hint to the JDBC driver about how many rows should be fetched from the database when more are required by application processing.
        Parameters:
        rows - the number of rows that should be fetched. 0 tells the driver to ignore the hint. Should be less than getMaxRows for this statement. Should not be negative.
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database, or if the rows parameter is out of range.
      • setMaxFieldSize

        void setMaxFieldSize(int max)
                             throws SQLException
        Sets the maximum number of bytes for ResultSet columns that contain character or binary values. This applies to BINARY, VARBINARY, LONGVARBINARY, CHAR, VARCHAR, and LONGVARCHAR fields. Any data exceeding the maximum size is abandoned without announcement.
        Parameters:
        max - the maximum field size in bytes. 0 means "no limit".
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or the max value is < 0.
      • setMaxRows

        void setMaxRows(int max)
                        throws SQLException
        Sets the maximum number of rows that any ResultSet can contain. If the number of rows exceeds this value, the additional rows are silently discarded.
        Parameters:
        max - the maximum number of rows. 0 means "no limit".
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or if max < 0.
      • setQueryTimeout

        void setQueryTimeout(int seconds)
                             throws SQLException
        Sets the timeout, in seconds, for queries - how long the driver will allow for completion of a statement execution. If the timeout is exceeded, the query will throw an SQLException.
        Parameters:
        seconds - timeout in seconds. 0 means no timeout ("wait forever")
        Throws:
        SQLException - if an error occurs accessing the database or if seconds < 0.
      • isClosed

        boolean isClosed()
                         throws SQLException
        Returns true if this statement has been closed, false otherwise.
        Throws:
        SQLException
      • setPoolable

        void setPoolable(boolean poolable)
                         throws SQLException
        Hints whether this statement should be pooled. Defaults to false for Statement, but true for CallableStatement and PreparedStatement. Pool manager implementations may or may not honor this hint.
        Throws:
        SQLException
      • isPoolable

        boolean isPoolable()
                           throws SQLException
        Returns true if this statement is poolable, false otherwise.
        Throws:
        SQLException


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