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Android Reference

Locale


java.util

Class Locale

  • All Implemented Interfaces:
    Serializable, Cloneable


    public final class Locale
    extends Object
    implements Cloneable, Serializable
    Locale represents a language/country/variant combination. Locales are used to alter the presentation of information such as numbers or dates to suit the conventions in the region they describe.

    The language codes are two-letter lowercase ISO language codes (such as "en") as defined by ISO 639-1. The country codes are two-letter uppercase ISO country codes (such as "US") as defined by ISO 3166-1. The variant codes are unspecified.

    Note that Java uses several deprecated two-letter codes. The Hebrew ("he") language code is rewritten as "iw", Indonesian ("id") as "in", and Yiddish ("yi") as "ji". This rewriting happens even if you construct your own Locale object, not just for instances returned by the various lookup methods.

    Available locales

    This class' constructors do no error checking. You can create a Locale for languages and countries that don't exist, and you can create instances for combinations that don't exist (such as "de_US" for "German as spoken in the US").

    Note that locale data is not necessarily available for any of the locales pre-defined as constants in this class except for en_US, which is the only locale Java guarantees is always available.

    It is also a mistake to assume that all devices have the same locales available. A device sold in the US will almost certainly support en_US and es_US, but not necessarily any locales with the same language but different countries (such as en_GB or es_ES), nor any locales for other languages (such as de_DE). The opposite may well be true for a device sold in Europe.

    You can use getDefault() to get an appropriate locale for the user of the device you're running on, or getAvailableLocales() to get a list of all the locales available on the device you're running on.

    Locale data

    Note that locale data comes solely from ICU. User-supplied locale service providers (using the java.text.spi or java.util.spi mechanisms) are not supported.

    Here are the versions of ICU (and the corresponding CLDR and Unicode versions) used in various Android releases:

    cupcake/donut/eclair ICU 3.8 CLDR 1.5 Unicode 5.0
    froyo ICU 4.2 CLDR 1.7 Unicode 5.1
    gingerbread/honeycombICU 4.4 CLDR 1.8 Unicode 5.2
    ice cream sandwich ICU 4.6 CLDR 1.9 Unicode 6.0
    jelly bean ICU 4.8 CLDR 2.0 Unicode 6.0

    Be wary of the default locale

    Note that there are many convenience methods that automatically use the default locale, but using them may lead to subtle bugs.

    The default locale is appropriate for tasks that involve presenting data to the user. In this case, you want to use the user's date/time formats, number formats, rules for conversion to lowercase, and so on. In this case, it's safe to use the convenience methods.

    The default locale is not appropriate for machine-readable output. The best choice there is usually Locale.US – this locale is guaranteed to be available on all devices, and the fact that it has no surprising special cases and is frequently used (especially for computer-computer communication) means that it tends to be the most efficient choice too.

    A common mistake is to implicitly use the default locale when producing output meant to be machine-readable. This tends to work on the developer's test devices (especially because so many developers use en_US), but fails when run on a device whose user is in a more complex locale.

    For example, if you're formatting integers some locales will use non-ASCII decimal digits. As another example, if you're formatting floating-point numbers some locales will use ',' as the decimal point and '.' for digit grouping. That's correct for human-readable output, but likely to cause problems if presented to another computer (Double.parseDouble(java.lang.String) can't parse such a number, for example). You should also be wary of the String.toLowerCase() and String.toUpperCase() overloads that don't take a Locale: in Turkey, for example, the characters 'i' and 'I' won't be converted to 'I' and 'i'. This is the correct behavior for Turkish text (such as user input), but inappropriate for, say, HTTP headers.

    See Also:
    Serialized Form
    • Field Detail

      • CANADA

        public static final Locale CANADA
        Locale constant for en_CA.
      • CANADA_FRENCH

        public static final Locale CANADA_FRENCH
        Locale constant for fr_CA.
      • CHINA

        public static final Locale CHINA
        Locale constant for zh_CN.
      • CHINESE

        public static final Locale CHINESE
        Locale constant for zh.
      • ENGLISH

        public static final Locale ENGLISH
        Locale constant for en.
      • FRANCE

        public static final Locale FRANCE
        Locale constant for fr_FR.
      • FRENCH

        public static final Locale FRENCH
        Locale constant for fr.
      • GERMAN

        public static final Locale GERMAN
        Locale constant for de.
      • GERMANY

        public static final Locale GERMANY
        Locale constant for de_DE.
      • ITALIAN

        public static final Locale ITALIAN
        Locale constant for it.
      • ITALY

        public static final Locale ITALY
        Locale constant for it_IT.
      • JAPAN

        public static final Locale JAPAN
        Locale constant for ja_JP.
      • JAPANESE

        public static final Locale JAPANESE
        Locale constant for ja.
      • KOREA

        public static final Locale KOREA
        Locale constant for ko_KR.
      • KOREAN

        public static final Locale KOREAN
        Locale constant for ko.
      • PRC

        public static final Locale PRC
        Locale constant for zh_CN.
      • ROOT

        public static final Locale ROOT
        Locale constant for the root locale. The root locale has an empty language, country, and variant.
        Since:
        1.6
      • SIMPLIFIED_CHINESE

        public static final Locale SIMPLIFIED_CHINESE
        Locale constant for zh_CN.
      • TAIWAN

        public static final Locale TAIWAN
        Locale constant for zh_TW.
      • TRADITIONAL_CHINESE

        public static final Locale TRADITIONAL_CHINESE
        Locale constant for zh_TW.
      • UK

        public static final Locale UK
        Locale constant for en_GB.
      • US

        public static final Locale US
        Locale constant for en_US.
    • Constructor Detail

      • Locale

        public Locale(String language)
        Constructs a new Locale using the specified language.
      • Locale

        public Locale(String language,
              String country)
        Constructs a new Locale using the specified language and country codes.
      • Locale

        public Locale(String language,
              String country,
              String variant)
        Constructs a new Locale using the specified language, country, and variant codes.
    • Method Detail

      • clone

        public Object clone()
        Description copied from class: Object
        Creates and returns a copy of this Object. The default implementation returns a so-called "shallow" copy: It creates a new instance of the same class and then copies the field values (including object references) from this instance to the new instance. A "deep" copy, in contrast, would also recursively clone nested objects. A subclass that needs to implement this kind of cloning should call super.clone() to create the new instance and then create deep copies of the nested, mutable objects.
        Overrides:
        clone in class Object
        Returns:
        a copy of this object.
      • equals

        public boolean equals(Object object)
        Returns true if object is a locale with the same language, country and variant.
        Overrides:
        equals in class Object
        Parameters:
        object - the object to compare this instance with.
        Returns:
        true if the specified object is equal to this Object; false otherwise.
        See Also:
        Object.hashCode()
      • getCountry

        public String getCountry()
        Returns the country code for this locale, or "" if this locale doesn't correspond to a specific country.
      • getDefault

        public static Locale getDefault()
        Returns the user's preferred locale. This may have been overridden for this process with setDefault(java.util.Locale).

        Since the user's locale changes dynamically, avoid caching this value. Instead, use this method to look it up for each use.

      • getDisplayCountry

        public final String getDisplayCountry()
        Equivalent to getDisplayCountry(Locale.getDefault()).
      • getDisplayCountry

        public String getDisplayCountry(Locale locale)
        Returns the name of this locale's country, localized to locale. Returns the empty string if this locale does not correspond to a specific country.
      • getDisplayLanguage

        public final String getDisplayLanguage()
        Equivalent to getDisplayLanguage(Locale.getDefault()).
      • getDisplayLanguage

        public String getDisplayLanguage(Locale locale)
        Returns the name of this locale's language, localized to locale. If the language name is unknown, the language code is returned.
      • getDisplayName

        public final String getDisplayName()
        Equivalent to getDisplayName(Locale.getDefault()).
      • getDisplayName

        public String getDisplayName(Locale locale)
        Returns this locale's language name, country name, and variant, localized to locale. The exact output form depends on whether this locale corresponds to a specific language, country and variant.

        For example:

        • new Locale("en").getDisplayName(Locale.US) -> English
        • new Locale("en", "US").getDisplayName(Locale.US) -> English (United States)
        • new Locale("en", "US", "POSIX").getDisplayName(Locale.US) -> English (United States,Computer)
        • new Locale("en").getDisplayName(Locale.FRANCE) -> anglais
        • new Locale("en", "US").getDisplayName(Locale.FRANCE) -> anglais (États-Unis)
        • new Locale("en", "US", "POSIX").getDisplayName(Locale.FRANCE) -> anglais (États-Unis,informatique).
      • getDisplayVariant

        public final String getDisplayVariant()
        Returns the full variant name in the default Locale for the variant code of this Locale. If there is no matching variant name, the variant code is returned.
      • getDisplayVariant

        public String getDisplayVariant(Locale locale)
        Returns the full variant name in the specified Locale for the variant code of this Locale. If there is no matching variant name, the variant code is returned.
      • getISO3Country

        public String getISO3Country()
        Returns the three letter ISO country code which corresponds to the country code for this Locale.
      • getISO3Language

        public String getISO3Language()
        Returns the three letter ISO language code which corresponds to the language code for this Locale.
      • getISOCountries

        public static String[] getISOCountries()
        Returns an array of strings containing all the two-letter ISO country codes that can be used as the country code when constructing a Locale.
      • getISOLanguages

        public static String[] getISOLanguages()
        Returns an array of strings containing all the two-letter ISO language codes that can be used as the language code when constructing a Locale.
      • getLanguage

        public String getLanguage()
        Returns the language code for this Locale or the empty string if no language was set.
      • getVariant

        public String getVariant()
        Returns the variant code for this Locale or an empty String if no variant was set.
      • hashCode

        public int hashCode()
        Description copied from class: Object
        Returns an integer hash code for this object. By contract, any two objects for which Object.equals(java.lang.Object) returns true must return the same hash code value. This means that subclasses of Object usually override both methods or neither method.

        Note that hash values must not change over time unless information used in equals comparisons also changes.

        See Writing a correct hashCode method if you intend implementing your own hashCode method.

        Overrides:
        hashCode in class Object
        Returns:
        this object's hash code.
        See Also:
        Object.equals(java.lang.Object)
      • setDefault

        public static void setDefault(Locale locale)
        Overrides the default locale. This does not affect system configuration, and attempts to override the system-provided default locale may themselves be overridden by actual changes to the system configuration. Code that calls this method is usually incorrect, and should be fixed by passing the appropriate locale to each locale-sensitive method that's called.
      • toString

        public final String toString()
        Returns the string representation of this Locale. It consists of the language code, country code and variant separated by underscores. If the language is missing the string begins with an underscore. If the country is missing there are 2 underscores between the language and the variant. The variant cannot stand alone without a language and/or country code: in this case this method would return the empty string.

        Examples: "en", "en_US", "_US", "en__POSIX", "en_US_POSIX"

        Overrides:
        toString in class Object
        Returns:
        a printable representation of this object.


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